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Author Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.; Bilý, O.
Title Emission spectra of light-pollution sources determined from the light-scattering spectrometry of the night sky Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 491 Issue 4 Pages (down) 5586-5594
Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing
Abstract The emission spectrum of a light-pollution source is a determining factor for modelling artificial light at night. The spectral composition of skyglow is normally derived from the initial spectra of all artificial light sources contributing to the diffuse illumination of an observation point. However, light scattering in the ambient atmosphere imposes a wavelength-specific distortion on the optical signals captured by the measuring device. The nature of the emission, the spectra and the light-scattering phenomena not only control the spectral properties of the ground-reaching radiation, but also provide a unique tool for remote diagnosis and even identification of the emission spectra of the light-polluting sources. This is because the information contained in the night-sky brightness is preferably measured in directions towards a glowing dome of light over the artificial source of light. We have developed a new method for obtaining the emission spectra using remote terrestrial sensing of the bright patches of sky associated with a source. Field experiments conducted in Vienna and Bratislava have been used to validate the theoretical model and the retrieval method. These experiments demonstrate that the numerical inversion is successful even if the signal-to-noise ratio is small. The method for decoding the emission spectra by the light-scattering spectrometry of a night sky is a unique approach that enables for (i) a systematic characterization of the light-pollution sources over a specific territory, and (ii) a significant improvement in the numerical prediction of skyglow changes that we can expect at observatories.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2793
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Author Depner, C.M.; Melanson, E.L.; McHill, A.W.; Wright, K.P.J.
Title Mistimed food intake and sleep alters 24-hour time-of-day patterns of the human plasma proteome Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 115 Issue 23 Pages (down) E5390-E5399
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Proteomics holds great promise for understanding human physiology, developing health biomarkers, and precision medicine. However, how much the plasma proteome varies with time of day and is regulated by the master circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus brain clock, assessed here by the melatonin rhythm, is largely unknown. Here, we assessed 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins in six healthy men during daytime food intake and nighttime sleep in phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian alignment) versus daytime sleep and nighttime food intake out of phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian misalignment induced by simulated nightshift work). We identified 24-h time-of-day patterns in 573 of 1,129 proteins analyzed, with 30 proteins showing strong regulation by the circadian cycle. Relative to circadian alignment, the average abundance and/or 24-h time-of-day patterns of 127 proteins were altered during circadian misalignment. Altered proteins were associated with biological pathways involved in immune function, metabolism, and cancer. Of the 30 circadian-regulated proteins, the majority peaked between 1400 hours and 2100 hours, and these 30 proteins were associated with basic pathways involved in extracellular matrix organization, tyrosine kinase signaling, and signaling by receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2. Furthermore, circadian misalignment altered multiple proteins known to regulate glucose homeostasis and/or energy metabolism, with implications for altered metabolic physiology. Our findings demonstrate the circadian clock, the behavioral wake-sleep/food intake-fasting cycle, and interactions between these processes regulate 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins and help identify mechanisms of circadian misalignment that may contribute to metabolic dysregulation.
Address Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29784788 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1916
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Author Raap, T.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title Rigorous field experiments are essential to understand the genuine severity of light pollution and to identify possible solutions Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 23 Issue 12 Pages (down) 5024-5026
Keywords commentary; animals
Abstract Ouyang et al. (2017; hereafter O2017) claim to have offered evidence that light pollution affects the health of free-living great tits (Parus major). Since 2012, they illuminated forests with either white, green, red or no artificial light at night (ALAN; Figure 1). Individuals in the white light treatment showed an increase in nightly activity in March 2014, which was linked to changes in health and physiology from March to May 2014. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Biology, Behavioural Ecology and Ecophysiology Group, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28746741 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1695
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Author Wallner, S.; Kocifaj, M.; Komar, L.; Solano-Lamphar, H.A.
Title Night-sky imaging as a potential tool for characterization of total lumen output from small and medium-sized cities Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 494 Issue 4 Pages (down) 5008-5017
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract In this article, the asymptotic formula developed in past work and applied to predict skyglow due to distant sources was evolved, with the objective of characterizing small and medium-sized cities in the observer's surroundings. To enable this, a combination of theoretical computations and in situ measurements is needed, aiming to distinguish between dominant and smaller light-emitting sources, with the latter usually being camouflaged when measuring the night sky. Furthermore, for numerical modelling of skyglow, few of the most important parameters, specifically the amount of total lumens installed and radiated to the upward hemisphere, can be derived. Astronomical observatories, in particular, can profit from this concept, since they are usually situated far away from large cities but can still be surrounded by smaller villages and towns. We present a detailed description of how theoretical computations are combined with all-sky photometry in order to obtain the properties mentioned. Results are compared with satellite data, showing that, regarding approximations undertaken for processing, they are comparable, underlining the functionality of our approach. The idea of including in situ observations enables us to quantify the impact of small and medium-sized cities globally and independent of location, as long as measurements were conducted outside light domes. In addition, the presented work may be of major interest to the light-pollution community if conducting long-term observations of cities, since the quality of commonly used satellite data is going to decrease in the future, due to blindness in short wavelengths and upcoming conversions of public lighting systems to blue-enlightened LEDs.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2911
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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K.M.; Xavia, K.; Bobkowska, K.
Title Assessment of Citizens’ Actions against Light Pollution with Guidelines for Future Initiatives Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 12 Issue 12 Pages (down) 4997
Keywords Society; History; Conservation; Law; Activism; Education
Abstract Due to the wide reach of media reports about scientific research and technological tools such as the world wide web (WWW), the Internet, and web browsers, citizens today have access to factual information about the negative impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on their dark skies, and their health and well-being. This means they can now make educated decisions and take the necessary steps to help protect themselves and their communities from disruptive light pollution. Whilst this action is positive and welcomed, unfortunately, according to collected data, not all such initiatives have been successful. Although our understanding of this groundswell movement is deepening, further studies are required to complete a worldwide picture of the current situation. This paper therefore investigates the various actions taken by citizens, as well as the challenges, methods, and tools involved, regarding good practices initiated by grass roots activism on how to reduce existing and potential light pollution. The results of a comparative analysis of 262 international case studies (lawsuits and online petitions) reveal that, since the 1990s, there has been an increase in the number of legal cases related to light pollution due to the rise in public awareness, the availability of scientific knowledge via the Internet, and the ability to take accurate lighting measurements and perform lighting simulations. Also, in the last decade a new tool for digital participation in the form of online petitions has established a new movement of citizen action to mitigate the effects of light pollution. Based on this information, a seven-step framework involving recommendations for citizen action has been developed. It is expected that this new knowledge will benefit those citizens planning future efforts involving the development, implementation, and monitoring processes of outdoor lighting. Additionally, it might support the evolution of planning and policy approaches that are sustainable and necessary to improve the application and installation of ecologically/biologically responsible illumination for towns, cities, and natural habitats.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3008
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