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Author Raap, T.; Pinxten, R.; Casasole, G.; Dehnhard, N.; Eens, M.
Title Ambient anthropogenic noise but not light is associated with the ecophysiology of free-living songbird nestlings Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages (down) 2754
Keywords Animals
Abstract Urbanization is associated with dramatic increases in noise and light pollution, which affect animal behaviour, physiology and fitness. However, few studies have examined these stressors simultaneously. Moreover, effects of urbanization during early-life may be detrimental but are largely unknown. In developing great tits (Parus major), a frequently-used model species, we determined important indicators of immunity and physiological condition: plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx) concentration. We also determined fledging mass, an indicator for current health and survival. Associations of ambient noise and light exposure with these indicators were studied. Anthropogenic noise, light and their interaction were unrelated to fledging mass. Nestlings exposed to more noise showed higher plasma levels of Hp but not of NOx. Light was unrelated to Hp and NOx and did not interact with the effect of noise on nestlings' physiology. Increasing levels of Hp are potentially energy demanding and trade-offs could occur with life-history traits, such as survival. Effects of light pollution on nestlings of a cavity-nesting species appear to be limited. Nonetheless, our results suggest that the urban environment, through noise exposure, may entail important physiological costs for developing organisms.
Address Department of Biology, Behavioural Ecology and Ecophysiology Group, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28584270; PMCID:PMC5459827 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2451
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Author Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C.D.; Keith, D.M.; Haim, A.
Title Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages (down) 2714-2722
Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild; Conservation of Natural Resources; Environment; *Environmental Pollution; Eye; *Health; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects/standards; Melatonin/*antagonists & inhibitors; Sodium; Vision, Ocular/*physiology; Visual Perception
Abstract Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this “residual light pollution”, cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment and on visual perception of the Universe by humans. We present quantitative criteria to evaluate the lamps based on their spectral emissions and we suggest regulatory limits for future lighting.
Address Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell'Inquinamento Luminoso, Via Roma 13, I-36106 Thiene, Italy. falchi(at)lightpollution.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21745709 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3031
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O.
Title Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages (down) 2698-2706
Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants
Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086
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Author Viera-Perez, M.; Hernandez-Calvento, L.; Hesp, P.A.; Santana-Del Pino, A.
Title Effects of artificial light on flowering of foredune vegetation Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal Ecology
Volume 100 Issue 5 Pages (down) e02678
Keywords Plants; Coastal management; coastal dunes; Canary Islands; Spain; Europe
Abstract The impact of ecological light pollution involves alteration of periods of natural light, a fact that has proven effects on ecosystems. Few studies have focused on the impact of this pollution on wild plant species, and none on coastal dune plants. Many coastal dunes and their plants are adjacent to tourist areas, and these might be affected by light pollution. Such is the case of the Natural Reserve Dunas de Maspalomas (Gran Canaria), where some individuals of the plant species Traganum moquinii, located in the El Ingles beach foredune zone, are affected by light pollution. This study examines the effect of light pollution on the flowering process, and by extension the reproductive cycle of these plants. Plants located closer to high artificial illumination sources receive ~2120 hours per year of intense light more than plants located furthest from those artificial lighting sources. Parts of the plants of Traganum moquinii exposed directly to the artificial light show a significant decrease in the production of flowers, compared to the parts in plants in shade, and to the plants more distant from artificial lights. In consequence, plants exposed more directly to artificial light have a lower potential for seed reproduction. The spectrum of artificial light also affects the plants, and light between 600 and 700 nm primarily affects the reproductive cycle of the Traganum moquinii species. The implications for the ecological and geomorphological functioning of the dune system are discussed, because this species plays a decisive role in the formation of foredune zones and nebkhas in arid dune systems.
Address Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Ecological Society of America Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0012-9658 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30825328 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2244
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Author Bará, S.; Nievas, M.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.
Title Zernike analysis of all-sky night brightness maps Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Applied Optics Abbreviated Journal Appl Opt
Volume 53 Issue 12 Pages (down) 2677-2686
Keywords modeling; light at night; light pollution; all-sky; Zernike polynomials; image decomposition; sky brightness
Abstract All-sky night brightness maps (calibrated images of the night sky with hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) taken at standard photometric bands) provide useful data to assess the light pollution levels at any ground site. We show that these maps can be efficiently described and analyzed using Zernike circle polynomials. The relevant image information can be compressed into a low-dimensional coefficients vector, giving an analytical expression for the sky brightness and alleviating the effects of noise. Moreover, the Zernike expansions allow us to quantify in a straightforward way the average and zenithal sky brightness and its variation across the FOV, providing a convenient framework to study the time course of these magnitudes. We apply this framework to analyze the results of a one-year campaign of night sky brightness measurements made at the UCM observatory in Madrid.
Address Área de Óptica, Dept. de Física Aplicada, Fac. de Física, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Optical Society of America Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-6935 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24787595 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 318
Permanent link to this record