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Author Roman, M.O.; Stokes, E.C.; Shrestha, R.; Wang, Z.; Schultz, L.; Carlo, E.A.S.; Sun, Q.; Bell, J.; Molthan, A.; Kalb, V.; Ji, C.; Seto, K.C.; McClain, S.N.; Enenkel, M.
Title Satellite-based assessment of electricity restoration efforts in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0218883
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract A real-time understanding of the distribution and duration of power outages after a major disaster is a precursor to minimizing their harmful consequences. Here, we develop an approach for using daily satellite nighttime lights data to create spatially disaggregated power outage estimates, tracking electricity restoration efforts after disasters strike. In contrast to existing utility data, these estimates are independent, open, and publicly-available, consistently measured across regions that may be serviced by several different power companies, and inclusive of distributed power supply (off-grid systems). We apply the methodology in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Maria, which caused the longest blackout in US history. Within all of the island's settlements, we track outages and recovery times, and link these measures to census-based demographic characteristics of residents. Our results show an 80% decrease in lights, in total, immediately after Hurricane Maria. During the recovery, a disproportionate share of long-duration power failures (> 120 days) occurred in rural municipalities (41% of rural municipalities vs. 29% of urban municipalities), and in the northern and eastern districts. Unexpectedly, we also identify large disparities in electricity recovery between neighborhoods within the same urban area, based primarily on the density of housing. For many urban areas, poor residents, the most vulnerable to increased mortality and morbidity risks from power losses, shouldered the longest outages because they lived in less dense, detached housing where electricity restoration lagged. The approach developed in this study demonstrates the potential of satellite-based estimates of power recovery to improve the real-time monitoring of disaster impacts, globally, at a spatial resolution that is actionable for the disaster response community.
Address Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31251791 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2564
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Author Andrade-Pacheco, R.; Savory, D.J.; Midekisa, A.; Gething, P.W.; Sturrock, H.J.W.; Bennett, A.
Title Household electricity access in Africa (2000-2013): Closing information gaps with model-based geostatistics Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 14 Issue 5 Pages (down) e0214635
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Household electricity access data in Africa are scarce, particularly at the subnational level. We followed a model-based Geostatistics approach to produce maps of electricity access between 2000 and 2013 at a 5 km resolution. We collated data from 69 nationally representative household surveys conducted in Africa and incorporated nighttime lights imagery as well as land use and land cover data to produce maps of electricity access between 2000 and 2013. The information produced here can be an aid for understanding of how electricity access has changed in the region during this 14 year period. The resolution and the continental scale makes it possible to combine these data with other sources in applications in the socio-economic field, both at a local or regional level.
Address Malaria Elimination Initiative, Institute for Global Health Sciences, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31042727; PMCID:PMC6493706 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2531
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Author Rydell, J.; Elfstrom, M.; Eklof, J.; Sanchez-Navarro, S.
Title Dramatic decline of northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii in Sweden over 30 years Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R Soc Open Sci
Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages (down) 191754
Keywords Animals; Lepidoptera; climate change; light pollution; line transects; long-term monitoring; population decline
Abstract We monitored northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii (Keyserling & Blasius, 1839) acoustically along a 27 km road transect at weekly intervals in 1988, 1989 and 1990, and again in 2016 and 2017. The methodology of data collection and the transect were the same throughout, except that the insect-attracting mercury-vapour street-lights along parts of the road were replaced by sodium lights between the two survey periods. Counts along sections of the transect with and without street-lights were analysed separately. The frequency of bat encounters in unlit sections showed an average decline of 3.0% per year, corresponding to a reduction of 59% between 1988 and 2017. Sections with street-lights showed an 85% decline over the same period (6.3% per year). The decline represents a real reduction in the abundance of bats rather than an artefact of changed distribution of bats away from roads. Our study conforms with another long-term survey of the same species on the Baltic island of Gotland. Our results agree with predictions based on climate change models. They also indicate that the decline was caused directly by the disuse of the insect-attracting mercury-vapour street-lights, which may have resulted in lower availability of preferred prey (moths). In the 1980s, E. nilssonii was considered the most common bat in Sweden, but the subsequent decline would rather qualify it for vulnerable or endangered status in the national Red List of Threatened Species.
Address Biology Department, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32257332; PMCID:PMC7062070 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3023
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Author Foster, J.J.; Kirwan, J.D.; El Jundi, B.; Smolka, J.; Khaldy, L.; Baird, E.; Byrne, M.J.; Nilsson, D.-E.; Johnsen, S.; Dacke, M.
Title Orienting to polarized light at night – matching lunar skylight to performance in a nocturnal beetle Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol
Volume 222 Issue Pt 2 Pages (down) jeb188532
Keywords Animals; Natural skylight; insects; South African dung beetle; Escarabaeus satyrus; polarized light; Orientation
Abstract For polarized light to inform behaviour, the typical range of degrees of polarization observable in the animal's natural environment must be above the threshold for detection and interpretation. Here, we present the first investigation of the degree of linear polarization threshold for orientation behaviour in a nocturnal species, with specific reference to the range of degrees of polarization measured in the night sky. An effect of lunar phase on the degree of polarization of skylight was found, with smaller illuminated fractions of the moon's surface corresponding to lower degrees of polarization in the night sky. We found that the South African dung beetle Escarabaeus satyrus can orient to polarized light for a range of degrees of polarization similar to that observed in diurnal insects, reaching a lower threshold between 0.04 and 0.32, possibly as low as 0.11. For degrees of polarization lower than 0.23, as measured on a crescent moon night, orientation performance was considerably weaker than that observed for completely linearly polarized stimuli, but was nonetheless stronger than in the absence of polarized light.
Address Lund Vision Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Solvegatan 35, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30530838 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2599
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Author Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J.
Title Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal Sci Data
Volume 5 Issue Pages (down) 180256
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Dynamic measures of human populations are critical for global health management but are often overlooked, largely because they are difficult to quantify. Measuring human population dynamics can be prohibitively expensive in under-resourced communities. Satellite imagery can provide measurements of human populations, past and present, to complement public health analyses and interventions. We used anthropogenic illumination from publicly accessible, serial satellite nighttime images as a quantifiable proxy for seasonal population variation in five urban areas in Niger and Nigeria. We identified population fluxes as the mechanistic driver of regional seasonal measles outbreaks. Our data showed 1) urban illumination fluctuated seasonally, 2) corresponding population fluctuations were sufficient to drive seasonal measles outbreaks, and 3) overlooking these fluctuations during vaccination activities resulted in below-target coverage levels, incapable of halting transmission of the virus. We designed immunization solutions capable of achieving above-target coverage of both resident and mobile populations. Here, we provide detailed data on brightness from 2000-2005 for 5 cities in Niger and Nigeria and detailed methodology for application to other populations.
Address WorldPop, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton; Flowminder Foundation, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30422123; PMCID:PMC6233255 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2769
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