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Author Farnworth, B.; Meitern, R.; Innes, J.; Waas, J.R.
Title Increasing predation risk with light reduces speed, exploration and visit duration of invasive ship rats (Rattus rattus) Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages (down) 3739
Keywords Animals
Abstract Exploiting predation cues to deter pests remains an untapped management tool for conservationists. We examined foraging and movement patterns of 20 wild ship rats (Rattus rattus) within a large, outdoor 'U maze' that was either illuminated or dark to assess if light (an indirect predation cue) could deter rodents from ecologically vulnerable locations. Light did not alter rats' foraging behaviour (latency to approach seed tray, visits to seed tray, time per visit to seed tray, total foraging duration, foraging rate) within the experimental resource patch but three of seven movement behaviours were significantly impaired (53% fewer visits to the maze, 70% less exploration within the maze, 40% slower movement within the maze). The total time males spent exposed to illumination also declined by 45 minutes per night, unlike females. Individual visits tended to be longer under illumination, but the latency to visit and the latency to cross through the U maze were unaffected by illumination. Elevating predation risk with illumination may be a useful pest management technique for reducing ship rat activity, particularly in island ecosystems where controlling mammalian predators is paramount to preserving biodiversity.
Address Biological Sciences, School of Science, University of Waikato, Private Bag, 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30842448; PMCID:PMC6403350 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2250
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.
Title Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume 443 Issue 4 Pages (down) 3665-3674
Keywords Skyglow; radiative transfer; scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: numerical
Abstract The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU-intensive. These new results are of theoretical and experimental significance as they will motivate experimentalists to collect data from various regions to build an overall picture of the AF, and will encourage modellers to test the consistency with theoretical predictions.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 538
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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K.M.; Xavia, K.
Title Global Approaches to Reduce Light Pollution from Media Architecture and Non-Static, Self-Luminous LED Displays for Mixed-Use Urban Developments Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 11 Issue 12 Pages (down) 3446
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Urban environments have become significantly brighter and more illuminated, and cities now consider media architecture and non-static, self-luminous LED displays an essential element of their strategy to attract residents, visitors, and tourists in the hours after dark. Unfortunately, most often, they are not designed with care, consideration, and awareness, nor do they support the visual wellbeing and circadian rhythms of humans. They also increase light pollution which has an adverse effect on the environment. The aim of this study was to estimate the scale of the negative impact of 28 non-static, self-luminous LED shop window displays within a real-life city context along the main shopping street Banhofstrasse in Zurich, Switzerland. An experimental field measurement survey investigation was performed to identify visual luminance with commonly available tools such as a luminance meter and a digital reflex camera for luminance photography. Moreover, the most important global approaches to reduce light pollution were evaluated in the form of existing guidelines, technical standards, and laws, all of which should be considered when specifying illuminated digital advertisements. A literature review and survey results both confirmed the extent of the problem and highlighted, too, the need to better measure, apply, and manage this new technology. The authors’ proposal for improvements involve practical recommendations for the design and implementation of future projects which can positively guide and direct this growing trend.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2601
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Author Sun, Shaojie; Lu, Yingcheng; Liu, Yongxue; Wang, Mengqiu; Hu, Chuanmin
Title Tracking an oil tanker collision and spilled oils in the East China Sea using multi‐sensor day and night satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Geophysical Research Letters Abbreviated Journal
Volume 45 Issue 7 Pages (down) 3212-3220
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Satellite remote sensing is well known to play a critical role in monitoring marine accidents such as oil spills, yet the recent SANCHI oil tanker collision event in January 2018 in the East China Sea indicates that traditional techniques using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or daytime optical imagery could not provide timely and adequate coverage. In this study, we show the unprecedented value of VIIRS Nightfire product and Day/Night Band (DNB) data in tracking the oil tanker's drifting pathway and locations when all other means are not as effective for the same purpose. Such pathway and locations can also be reproduced with a numerical model, with RMS error of < 15 km. While high‐resolution optical imagery after 4 days of the tanker's sinking reveals much larger oil spill area (> 350 km2) than previous reports, the impact of the spilled condensate oil on the marine environment requires further research.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1838
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Author Zhang, J.; Jaker, S.L.; Reid, J.S.; Miller, S.D.; Solbrig, J.; Toth, T.D.
Title Characterization and application of artificial light sources for nighttime aerosol optical depth retrievals using the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Meas. Tech.
Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages (down) 3209-3222
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Using nighttime observations from Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night band (DNB), the characteristics of artificial light sources are evaluated as functions of observation conditions, and incremental improvements are documented on nighttime aerosol retrievals using VIIRS DNB data on a regional scale. We find that the standard deviation of instantaneous radiance for a given artificial light source is strongly dependent upon the satellite viewing angle but is weakly dependent on lunar fraction and lunar angle. Retrieval of nighttime aerosol optical thickness (AOT) based on the novel use of these artificial light sources is demonstrated for three selected regions (United States, Middle East and India) during 2015. Reasonable agreement is found between nighttime AOTs from the VIIRS DNB and temporally adjacent daytime AOTs from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) as well as from coincident nighttime AOT retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), indicating the potential of this method to begin filling critical gaps in diurnal AOT information at both regional and global scales. Issues related to cloud, snow and ice contamination during the winter season, as well as data loss due to the misclassification of thick aerosol plumes as clouds, must be addressed to make the algorithm operationally robust.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1867-8548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2583
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