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Author Rydell, J.; Eklöf, J.; Sánchez-Navarro, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Age of enlightenment: long-term effects of outdoor aesthetic lights on bats in churches Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 4 Issue 8 Pages (down) 161077  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract We surveyed 110 country churches in south-western Sweden for presence of brown long-eared bats Plecotus auritus in summer 2016 by visual inspection and/or evening emergence counts. Each church was also classified according to the presence and amount of aesthetic directional lights (flood-lights) aimed on its walls and tower from the outside. Sixty-one of the churches had previously been surveyed by one of us (J.R.) between 1980 and 1990, before lights were installed on Swedish churches, using the same methods. Churches with bat colonies had decreased significantly in frequency from 61% in 1980s to 38% by 2016. All abandoned churches had been fitted with flood-lights in the period between the two surveys. The loss of bat colonies from lit churches was highly significant and most obvious when lights were applied from all directions, leaving no dark corridor for the bats to leave and return to the roost. In contrast, in churches that were not lit, all of 13 bat colonies remained after 25+ years between the surveys. Lighting of churches and other historical buildings is a serious threat to the long-term survival and reproduction of light-averse bats such as Plecotus spp. and other slow-flying species. Bat roosts are strictly protected according to the EU Habitats Directive and the EUROBATS agreement. Lighting of buildings for aesthetic purposes is becoming a serious environmental issue, because important bat roosts are destroyed in large numbers, and the problem should be handled accordingly. As a start, installation of flood-lights on historical buildings should at least require an environmental impact assessment (EIA).  
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  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1698  
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Author Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in urban and rural areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 3 Issue 10 Pages (down) 160541  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The growing emissions of artificial light to the atmosphere are producing, among other effects, a significant increase of the night sky brightness (NSB) above its expected natural values. A permanent sensor network has been deployed in Galicia (northwest of Iberian peninsula) to monitor the anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in a countrywide area. The network is composed of 14 detectors integrated in automated weather stations of MeteoGalicia, the Galician public meteorological agency. Zenithal NSB readings are taken every minute and the results are openly available in real time for researchers, interested stakeholders and the public at large through a dedicated website. The measurements allow one to assess the extent of the loss of the natural night in urban, periurban, transition and dark rural sites, as well as its daily and monthly time courses. Two metrics are introduced here to characterize the disruption of the night darkness across the year: the significant magnitude (m1/3) and the moonlight modulation factor (γ). The significant magnitude shows that in clear and moonless nights the zenithal night sky in the analysed urban settings is typically 14–23 times brighter than expected from a nominal natural dark sky. This factor lies in the range 7–8 in periurban sites, 1.6–2.5 in transition regions and 0.8–1.6 in rural and mountain dark sky places. The presence of clouds in urban areas strongly enhances the amount of scattered light, easily reaching amplification factors in excess of 25, in comparison with the light scattered in the same places under clear sky conditions. The periodic NSB modulation due to the Moon, still clearly visible in transition and rural places, is barely notable at periurban locations and is practically lost at urban sites.  
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  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1544  
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Author Ou, J.; Liu, X.; Li, X.; Li, M.; Li, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 10 Issue 9 Pages (down) e0138310  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales.  
  Address School of Geography and Planning, and Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:26390037; PMCID:PMC4577086 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2272  
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Author Xue, X.; Lin, Y.; Zheng, Q.; Wang, K.; Zhang, J.; Deng, J.; Abubakar, G.A.; Gan, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping the fine-scale spatial pattern of artificial light pollution at night in urban environments from the perspective of bird habitats Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 702 Issue Pages (down) 134725  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; ALAN pollution; Circuitscape; Land cover; Nighttime light image; Urban ecology  
  Abstract The increase in artificial light at night (ALAN) is a global concern, while the pattern of ALAN pollution inside urban areas has not yet been fully explored. To fill this gap, we developed a novel method to map fine-scale ALAN pollution patterns in urban bird habitats using high spatial resolution ALAN satellite data. First, an ALAN pollution map was derived from JL1-3B satellite images. Then, the core habitat nodes (CHNs) representing the main habitats for urban birds to inhabit were identified from the land cover map, which was produced using Gaofen2 (GF2) data, and the high probability corridors (HPCs), indicating high connectivity paths, were derived from Circuitscape software. Finally, the ALAN patterns in the CHNs and HPCs were analysed, and the mismatch index was proposed to evaluate the trade-off between human activity ALAN demands and ALAN supply for the protection of urban birds. The results demonstrated that 115 woodland patches covering 4149.0ha were selected as CHNs, and most of the CHNs were large urban parks or scenic spots located in the urban fringe. The 2923 modelled HPCs occupying 1179.2ha were small remaining vegetation patches and vegetated corridors along the major transport arteries. The differences in the ALAN pollution patterns between CHNs and HPCs were mainly determined by the characteristics of the green space patches and the light source types. The polluted regions in the CHNs were clustered in a few regions that suffered from concentrated and intensive ALAN, while most of the CHNs remained unaffected. In contrast, the 727 HPCs were mainly polluted by street lighting was scattered and widely distributed, resulting a more varying influence to birds than that in the CHNs. Relating patterns of the ALAN to bird habitats and connectivity provides meaningful information for comprehensive planning to alleviate the disruptive effects of ALAN pollution.  
  Address College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address: ganmuye@zju.edu.cn  
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  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:31734607 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2765  
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Author Moaraf, S.; Vistoropsky, Y.; Pozner, T.; Heiblum, R.; Okuliarova, M.; Zeman, M.; Barnea, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night affects brain plasticity and melatonin in birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Neuroscience Letters Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Lett  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 134639  
  Keywords Animals; Artificial Light At Night (ALAN); cell proliferation; circadian cycle; melatonin; neuronal densities; zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN), which disrupts the daily cycle of light, has vast biological impacts on all organisms, and is also associated with several health problems. The few existing studies on neuronal plasticity and cognitive functions in mammals indicate that a disruption of the circadian cycle impairs learning and memory and suppresses neurogenesis. However, nothing is known about the effect of ALAN on neuronal plasticity in birds. To this end, zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were exposed to ecologically relevant ALAN intensities (0.5, 1.5 and 5 lux), treated with BrdU to quantify cell proliferation in their ventricular zone (VZ), and compared to controls that were kept under dark nights. We found, in our diurnal birds, that ALAN significantly increased cell proliferation in the VZ. However, neuronal densities in two brain regions decreased under ALAN, suggesting neuronal death. In addition, ALAN suppressed nocturnal melatonin production in a dose-dependent manner, and might also increase body mass. Taken together, our findings add to the notion of the deleterious effect of ALAN.  
  Address Department of Natural and Life Sciences, The Open University of Israel, Ra'anana, 43107, Israel  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0304-3940 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:31760086 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2760  
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