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Author Yonezawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Tomioka, M.; Matsuki, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 11 Issue 8 Pages (down) e0161735  
  Keywords Moonlight; Animals  
  Abstract There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27580019; PMCID:PMC5006988 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2082  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rydell, J.; Eklöf, J.; Sánchez-Navarro, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Age of enlightenment: long-term effects of outdoor aesthetic lights on bats in churches Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 4 Issue 8 Pages (down) 161077  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract We surveyed 110 country churches in south-western Sweden for presence of brown long-eared bats Plecotus auritus in summer 2016 by visual inspection and/or evening emergence counts. Each church was also classified according to the presence and amount of aesthetic directional lights (flood-lights) aimed on its walls and tower from the outside. Sixty-one of the churches had previously been surveyed by one of us (J.R.) between 1980 and 1990, before lights were installed on Swedish churches, using the same methods. Churches with bat colonies had decreased significantly in frequency from 61% in 1980s to 38% by 2016. All abandoned churches had been fitted with flood-lights in the period between the two surveys. The loss of bat colonies from lit churches was highly significant and most obvious when lights were applied from all directions, leaving no dark corridor for the bats to leave and return to the roost. In contrast, in churches that were not lit, all of 13 bat colonies remained after 25+ years between the surveys. Lighting of churches and other historical buildings is a serious threat to the long-term survival and reproduction of light-averse bats such as Plecotus spp. and other slow-flying species. Bat roosts are strictly protected according to the EU Habitats Directive and the EUROBATS agreement. Lighting of buildings for aesthetic purposes is becoming a serious environmental issue, because important bat roosts are destroyed in large numbers, and the problem should be handled accordingly. As a start, installation of flood-lights on historical buildings should at least require an environmental impact assessment (EIA).  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1698  
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Author Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in urban and rural areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 3 Issue 10 Pages (down) 160541  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The growing emissions of artificial light to the atmosphere are producing, among other effects, a significant increase of the night sky brightness (NSB) above its expected natural values. A permanent sensor network has been deployed in Galicia (northwest of Iberian peninsula) to monitor the anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in a countrywide area. The network is composed of 14 detectors integrated in automated weather stations of MeteoGalicia, the Galician public meteorological agency. Zenithal NSB readings are taken every minute and the results are openly available in real time for researchers, interested stakeholders and the public at large through a dedicated website. The measurements allow one to assess the extent of the loss of the natural night in urban, periurban, transition and dark rural sites, as well as its daily and monthly time courses. Two metrics are introduced here to characterize the disruption of the night darkness across the year: the significant magnitude (m1/3) and the moonlight modulation factor (γ). The significant magnitude shows that in clear and moonless nights the zenithal night sky in the analysed urban settings is typically 14–23 times brighter than expected from a nominal natural dark sky. This factor lies in the range 7–8 in periurban sites, 1.6–2.5 in transition regions and 0.8–1.6 in rural and mountain dark sky places. The presence of clouds in urban areas strongly enhances the amount of scattered light, easily reaching amplification factors in excess of 25, in comparison with the light scattered in the same places under clear sky conditions. The periodic NSB modulation due to the Moon, still clearly visible in transition and rural places, is barely notable at periurban locations and is practically lost at urban sites.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1544  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Helbich, M.; Browning, M.H.E.M.; Huss, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Outdoor light at night, air pollution and depressive symptoms: A cross-sectional study in the Netherlands Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 140914  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health  
  Abstract Background

Artificial light at night (ALAN) may be an anthropogenic stressor for mental health disturbing humans' natural day–night cycle. However, the few existing studies used satellite-based measures of radiances for outdoor ALAN exposure assessments, which were possibly confounded by traffic-related air pollutants.

Objective

To assess 1) whether living in areas with increased exposure to outdoor ALAN is associated with depressive symptoms; and 2) to assess the potential confounding effects of air pollution.

Methods

We used cross-sectional data from people (N = 10,482) aged 18–65 years in the Netherlands. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ–9). Satellite-measured annual ALAN were taken from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite. ALAN exposures were assessed at people's home address within 100 and 600 m buffers. We used generalized (geo)additive models to quantify associations between PHQ–9 scores and quintiles of ALAN adjusting for several potential confounders including PM2.5 and NO2.

Findings

Unadjusted estimates for the 100 m buffers showed that people in the 2nd to 5th ALAN quintile showed significantly higher PHQ–9 scores than those in the lowest ALAN quintile (βQ2 = 0.503 [95% confidence interval, 0.207–0.798], βQ3 = 0.587 [0.291–0.884], βQ4 = 0.921 [0.623–1.218], βQ5 = 1.322 [1.023–1.620]). ALAN risk estimates adjusted for individual and area-level confounders (i.e., PM2.5, urbanicity, noise, land-use diversity, greenness, deprivation, and social fragmentation) were attenuated but remained significant for the 100 m buffer (βQ2 = 0.420 [0.125–0.715], βQ3 = 0.383 [0.071–0.696], βQ4 = 0.513 [0.177–0.850], βQ5 = 0.541 [0.141–0.941]). When adjusting for NO2 per 100 m buffers, the air pollutant was associated with PHQ–9 scores, but ALAN did not display an exposure-response relationship. ALAN associations were insignificance for 600 m buffers.

Interpretation

Accounting for NO2 exposure suggested that air pollution rather than outdoor ALAN correlated with depressive symptoms. Future evaluations of health effects from ALAN should consider potential confounding by traffic-related exposures (i.e., NO2).
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3056  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ou, J.; Liu, X.; Li, X.; Li, M.; Li, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 10 Issue 9 Pages (down) e0138310  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales.  
  Address School of Geography and Planning, and Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26390037; PMCID:PMC4577086 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2272  
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