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Author Falcon, J.; Torriglia, A.; Attia, D.; Vienot, F.; Gronfier, C.; Behar-Cohen, F.; Martinsons, C.; Hicks, D.
Title Exposure to Artificial Light at Night and the Consequences for Flora, Fauna, and Ecosystems Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Frontiers in Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Front Neurosci
Volume 14 Issue Pages (down) 602796
Keywords Review; Animals; Plants; Ecology; anthropogenic impact; artificial-light-at-night; biological clocks; ecosystems; light-emitting-diodes; photoreception
Abstract The present review draws together wide-ranging studies performed over the last decades that catalogue the effects of artificial-light-at-night (ALAN) upon living species and their environment. We provide an overview of the tremendous variety of light-detection strategies which have evolved in living organisms – unicellular, plants and animals, covering chloroplasts (plants), and the plethora of ocular and extra-ocular organs (animals). We describe the visual pigments which permit photo-detection, paying attention to their spectral characteristics, which extend from the ultraviolet into infrared. We discuss how organisms use light information in a way crucial for their development, growth and survival: phototropism, phototaxis, photoperiodism, and synchronization of circadian clocks. These aspects are treated in depth, as their perturbation underlies much of the disruptive effects of ALAN. The review goes into detail on circadian networks in living organisms, since these fundamental features are of critical importance in regulating the interface between environment and body. Especially, hormonal synthesis and secretion are often under circadian and circannual control, hence perturbation of the clock will lead to hormonal imbalance. The review addresses how the ubiquitous introduction of light-emitting diode technology may exacerbate, or in some cases reduce, the generalized ever-increasing light pollution. Numerous examples are given of how widespread exposure to ALAN is perturbing many aspects of plant and animal behaviour and survival: foraging, orientation, migration, seasonal reproduction, colonization and more. We examine the potential problems at the level of individual species and populations and extend the debate to the consequences for ecosystems. We stress, through a few examples, the synergistic harmful effects resulting from the impacts of ALAN combined with other anthropogenic pressures, which often impact the neuroendocrine loops in vertebrates. The article concludes by debating how these anthropogenic changes could be mitigated by more reasonable use of available technology – for example by restricting illumination to more essential areas and hours, directing lighting to avoid wasteful radiation and selecting spectral emissions, to reduce impact on circadian clocks. We end by discussing how society should take into account the potentially major consequences that ALAN has on the natural world and the repercussions for ongoing human health and welfare.
Address Inserm, CNRS, Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1662-453X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33304237; PMCID:PMC7701298 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3245
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Author Parkinson, E.; Lawson, J.; Tiegs, S.D.
Title Artificial light at night at the terrestrial-aquatic interface: Effects on predators and fluxes of insect prey Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 10 Pages (down) e0240138
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The outcomes of species interactions-such as those between predators and prey-increasingly depend on environmental conditions that are modified by human activities. Light is among the most fundamental environmental parameters, and humans have dramatically altered natural light regimes across much of the globe through the addition of artificial light at night (ALAN). The consequences for species interactions, communities and ecosystems are just beginning to be understood. Here we present findings from a replicated field experiment that simulated over-the-water lighting in the littoral zone of a small lake. We evaluated responses by emergent aquatic insects and terrestrial invertebrate communities, and riparian predators (tetragnathid spiders). On average ALAN plots had 51% more spiders than control plots that were not illuminated. Mean individual spider body mass was greater in ALAN plots relative to controls, an effect that was strongly sex-dependent; mean male body mass was 34% greater in ALAN plots while female body mass was 176% greater. The average number of prey items captured in spider webs was 139% greater on ALAN mesocosms, an effect attributed to emergent aquatic insects. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and a multiple response permutation procedure revealed significantly different invertebrate communities captured in pan traps positioned in ALAN plots and controls. Control plots had taxonomic-diversity values (as H') that were 58% greater than ALAN plots, and communities that were 83% more-even. We attribute these differences to the aquatic family Caenidae which was the dominant family across both light treatments, but was 818% more abundant in ALAN plots. Our findings show that when ALAN is located in close proximity to freshwater it can concentrate fluxes of emergent aquatic insects, and that terrestrial predators in the littoral zone can compound this effect and intercept resource flows, preventing them from entering the terrestrial realm.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33031444 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3173
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Author Xie, Z.; Han, Y.; Sun, L.; Ping, J.
Title Analysis of land cover evolution within the built-up areas of provincial capital cities in northeastern China based on nighttime light data and Landsat data Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 10 Pages (down) e0239371
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Mastering the evolution of urban land cover is important for urban management and planning. In this paper, a method for analyzing land cover evolution within urban built-up areas based on nighttime light data and Landsat data is proposed. The method solves the problem of inaccurate descriptions of urban built-up area boundaries from the use of single-source diurnal or nocturnal remote sensing data and was able to achieve an effective analysis of land cover evolution within built-up areas. Four main procedures are involved: (1) The neighborhood extremum method and maximum likelihood method are used to extract nighttime light data and the urban built-up area boundaries from the Landsat data, respectively; (2) multisource urban boundaries are obtained using boundary pixel fusion of the nighttime light data and Landsat urban built-up area boundaries; (3) the maximum likelihood method is used to classify Landsat data within multisource urban boundaries into land cover classes, such as impervious surface, vegetation and water, and to calculate landscape indexes, such as overall landscape trends, degree of fragmentation and degree of aggregation; (4) the changes in the multisource urban boundaries and landscape indexes were obtained using the abovementioned methods, which were supported by multitemporal nighttime light data and Landsat data, to model the urban land cover evolution. Using the cities of Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin in northeastern China as experimental areas, the multitemporal landscape index showed that the integration and aggregation of land cover in the urban areas had an increasing trend, the natural environment of Shenyang and Harbin was improving, while Changchun laid more emphasis on the construction of artificial facilities. At the same time, the method proposed in this paper to extract built-up areas from multi-source city data showed that the user accuracy, production accuracy, overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient are at least 3%, 1%, 1% and 0.04 higher than the single-source data method.
Address School of Transportation Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Hunnan District, Shenyang, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33001996; PMCID:PMC7529268 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3166
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Author Li, X.; Yang, X.; Gong, L.
Title Evaluating the influencing factors of urbanization in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region over the past 27 years based on VIIRS-DNB and DMSP/OLS nightlight imageries Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 7 Pages (down) e0235903
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is the core economic area of the “Silk Road Economic Belt”. The urbanization of this region plays a highly important role in economic and cultural communications between China, Central Asia and Europe. However, the influencing factors of urbanization in this region remain unclear. In this study, we presented a new modified thresholding method to extract the urban built-up areas from two nightlight remote sensing data sources, i.e., the DMSP/OLS and VIIRS/DNB nightlight imageries. Then, geographical detectors and hierarchical partitioning analysis were used to test the influences of anthropogenic and geographic environmental factors on urbanization. Our results showed that the relative error between the actual and the extracted urban built-up areas calculated using our method ranged from -0.30 to 0.27 in two biggest sample cities (Urumqi and Karamay) over the last 27 years. These errors were lower than those calculated by using the traditional method (-0.66 </= relative error </= -0.11). The expansion of urban built-up areas was greater in the northern regions than the southern regions of Xinjiang, as well as was greater in large cities than small and medium-sized cities. The influence of anthropogenic factors on urbanization has continually decreased over the past 27 years, while the influence of geographical environmental factors has increased. Among all influencing factors, fixed asset investment, topographic position index and per capita possession of water resources have the high contributions on urbanization, accounting for 18.75%, 15.62% and 14.18% of the variance of urbanization, respectively. Here, we provided a new method for studying urbanization by using remote sensing data. Our results are helpful for understand the driving factors of urbanization, and they provide guidance for the sustainable economic development of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
Address Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32697778; PMCID:PMC7375535 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3077
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Author Salat, H.; Smoreda, Z.; Schlapfer, M.
Title A method to estimate population densities and electricity consumption from mobile phone data in developing countries Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0235224
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract High quality census data are not always available in developing countries. Instead, mobile phone data are becoming a popular proxy to evaluate the density, activity and social characteristics of a population. They offer additional advantages: they are updated in real-time, include mobility information and record visitors' activity. However, we show with the example of Senegal that the direct correlation between the average phone activity and both the population density and the nighttime lights intensity may be insufficiently high to provide an accurate representation of the situation. There are reasons to expect this, such as the heterogeneity of the market share or the particular granularity of the distribution of cell towers. In contrast, we present a method based on the daily, weekly and yearly phone activity curves and on the network characteristics of the mobile phone data, that allows to estimate more accurately such information without compromising people's privacy. This information can be vital for development and infrastructure planning. In particular, this method could help to reduce significantly the logistic costs of data collection in the particularly budget-constrained context of developing countries.
Address Future Cities Laboratory, Singapore-ETH Centre, ETH Zurich, Singapore, Singapore
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32603345 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3030
Permanent link to this record