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Author Secondi, J.; Davranche, A.; Théry, M.; Mondy, N.; Lengagne, T.; Isaac, N.
Title Assessing the effects of artificial light at night on biodiversity across latitude – Current knowledge gaps Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr
Volume in press Issue Pages (down) geb.13037
Keywords Ecology; biodiversity; Review
Abstract Aim

Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) is a risk factor for organisms. Considering the spread and increasing intensity of night brightness across the globe, and the key role of light at all biological levels, alterations of ecosystems are expected. Yet, we cannot predict the severity of the effects of ALAN in several biomes because little information is available outside the temperate zone. We reviewed current knowledge and identified traits that could be targeted to fill this knowledge gap in order to contribute to the elaboration of a biogeographical framework for the study of ALAN at the global scale.

Location

Global.

Time period

Current and next decades.

Methods

We analysed the latitudinal variation in ALAN and focused on environmental factors that vary with latitude but that have been overlooked. We reviewed biological traits that exhibit latitudinal variation and depend on light and photoperiod and compiled information about the predicted changes in human demography and road networks across different world regions.

Results

Cloud cover amplifies ALAN far away from urbanized areas. Because of the higher frequency of overcast sky nights, exposure effects may be stronger both at high latitudes and across a large fraction of the intertropical zone, although at different times of the year. Intertropical biomes host the largest fraction of global biodiversity. Although currently they are not the most exposed to ALAN, their human populations are growing, and urbanized areas and road networks are expanding. Hence, ALAN could have strong ecological consequences, with cloud cover as an aggravating factor.

Perspectives

Knowledge gaps currently limit our ability to predict the effects of ALAN in different biomes. Therefore, it will be important to start investigating the consequences of this novel environmental factor across the globe, in order to develop a relevant theoretical framework.
Address
Corporate Author Wiley Thesis
Publisher English Place of Publication English Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2758
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Author Alzahrani, H.S.; Khuu, S.K.; Roy, M.
Title Modelling the effect of commercially available blue-blocking lenses on visual and non-visual functions Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Clinical & Experimental Optometry Abbreviated Journal Clin Exp Optom
Volume in press Issue Pages (down) cxo.12959
Keywords Human Health; blue-blocking lenses; non-visual functions; transmittance; visual functions
Abstract BACKGROUND: Blue-blocking lenses (BBLs) are marketed as providing retinal protection from acute and cumulative exposure to blue light over time. The selective reduction in visible wavelengths transmitted through BBLs is known to influence the photosensitivity of retinal photoreceptors, which affects both visual and non-visual functions. This study measured the spectral transmittance of BBLs and evaluated their effect on blue perception, scotopic vision, circadian rhythm, and protection from photochemical retinal damage. METHODS: Seven different types of BBLs from six manufacturers and untinted control lenses with three different powers (+2.00 D, -2.00 D and Plano) were evaluated. The whiteness index of BBLs used in this study was calculated using Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) Standard Illuminates D65, and CIE 1964 Standard with a 2 degrees Observer. The protective qualities of BBLs and their effect on blue perception, scotopic vision, and circadian rhythm were evaluated based on their spectral transmittance, which was measured with a Cary 5,000 UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. RESULTS: BBLs were found to reduce blue light (400-500 nm) by 6-43 per cent, providing significant protection from photochemical retinal damage compared to control lenses (p </= 0.05). All BBLs were capable of reducing the perception of blue colours, scotopic sensitivities and circadian sensitivities by 5-36 per cent, 5-24 per cent, and 4-27 per cent, respectively depending on the brand and power of the lens. CONCLUSION: BBLs can provide some protection to the human eye from photochemical retinal damage by reducing a portion of blue light that may affect visual and non-visual performances, such as those critical to scotopic vision, blue perception, and circadian rhythm.
Address School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0816-4622 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31441122 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2654
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Author Spitschan, M.; Cajochen, C.
Title Binocular facilitation in light-mediated melatonin suppression? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume 67 Issue 4 Pages (down) e12602
Keywords Human Health; Vision; melatonin suppression; monocular; binocular
Abstract Astronomers and pilots have known for a long time that closing one eye can preserve vision in that eye while going from dark to light and back. Recently, it was reported that viewing a smartphone monocularly in an otherwise dark room can lead to transient, but strong reductions in retinal sensitivity in that eye (Alim-Marvasti, Bi, Mahroo, Barbur, & Plant, 2016). But seeing detail is not the only function that is mediated by the retina. Here, we address the question whether light exposure to one eye only (monocular) has tangible effects on the suppression of melatonin by light, relative to both eyes open (binocular).
Address Transfaculty Research Platform Molecular and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31361918 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2595
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Author Xiang, S.; Dauchy, R.T.; Hoffman, A.E.; Pointer, D.; Frasch, T.; Blask, D.E.; Hill, S.M.
Title Epigenetic inhibition of the tumor suppressor ARHI by light at night-induced circadian melatonin disruption mediates STAT3-driven paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages (down) e12586
Keywords Animals; Human Health; Circadian Rhythm; Cancer; tumor suppression
Abstract Disruption of circadian time structure and suppression of circadian nocturnal melatonin (MLT) production by exposure to dim light at night (dLAN), as occurs with night shift work and/or disturbed sleep-wake cycles, is associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer and resistance to tamoxifen and doxorubicin. Melatonin inhibition of human breast cancer chemo-resistance involves mechanisms including suppression of tumor metabolism and inhibition of kinases and transcription factors which are often activated in drug-resistant breast cancer. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), frequently overexpressed and activated in Paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant breast cancer, promotes the expression of DNA methyltransferase one (DNMT1) to epigenetically suppresses the transcription of tumor suppressor Aplasia Ras homolog one (ARHI) which can sequester STAT3 in the cytoplasm to block PTX-resistance. We demonstrate that breast tumor xenografts in rats exposed to dLAN and circadian MLT disrupted express elevated levels of phosphorylated and acetylated STAT3, increased DNMT1, but reduced Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and ARHI. Furthermore, MLT and/or SIRT1 administration blocked/reversed Interleukin 6 (IL-6)-induced acetylation of STAT3 and its methylation of ARH1 to increase ARH1 mRNA expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Finally, analyses of the I-SPY 1 trial demonstrates that elevated MT1 receptor expression is significantly correlated with pathologic complete response following neo-adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. This is the first study to demonstrate circadian disruption of MLT by dLAN driving intrinsic resistance to PTX via epigenetic mechanisms increasing STAT3 expression and that MLT administration can reestablish sensitivity of breast tumors to PTX and drive tumor regression.
Address Tulane Circadian Cancer Biology Group, New Orleans, Louisiana
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31077613 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2383
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Author Rahman, S.A.; Bibbo, C.; Olcese, J.; Czeisler, C.A.; Robinson, J.N.; Klerman, E.B.
Title Relationship between endogenous melatonin concentrations and uterine contractions in late third trimester of human pregnancy Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume 66 Issue 4 Pages (down) e12566
Keywords Human Health; Melatonin; Pregnancy
Abstract In humans, circulating levels of the hormone melatonin and the initiation of spontaneous labor are both higher at night than during the day. Since activation of uterine melatonin receptors can stimulate human in vitro uterine contractions and these receptors are only expressed on the uterine tissue of women in labor, we hypothesized that circulating melatonin concentrations would affect uterine contractions in vivo. We evaluated the impact of light-induced modulation of melatonin secretion on uterine contractions in women during late third-trimester (~36-39 weeks) of pregnancy in two inpatient protocols. We found a significant (p<0.05) positive linear association between circulating melatonin concentrations and the number of uterine contractions under both protocols. On average, uterine contractions increased between 1.4 to 2.1 contractions per 30 minutes for every 10 pg/ml*h increase in melatonin concentration. These findings have both basic science and clinical implications for pregnant women, since endogenous melatonin levels and melatonin receptor activity can be altered by light and/or pharmaceutical agents.
Address Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30739346 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2203
Permanent link to this record