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Author Shan, J.; Liu, Y.; Kong, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Identifying City Shrinkage in Population and City Activity in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, China Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Urban Planning and Development Abbreviated Journal J. Urban Plann. Dev.  
  Volume 146 Issue 3 Pages (down) 04020027-1 - 04020027-11  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract In the context of globalization, cities have undergone a polarization of growth and shrinkage. Urban shrinkage is typically measured by a decrease in population. However, city activity is usually ignored. Accordingly, this study measured city shrinkage in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River based on whether city activities and population shrank from 2000 to 2010. This study drew on the Cobb-Douglas production function using multiple big data [such as nighttime light (NTL) data, patent data, and land transaction data] to calculate a city activity index to examine city activity. The geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was applied to explore the influencing factors of city shrinkage. Results showed the following: (1) in the area of study, 14.87% of cities experienced population loss, considering the city activities, an increase in the latter accounted for 57.36% in depopulation cities; (2) urban shrinkage spatial pattern presented the feature of “overall growth, local shrinkage”; (3) in the urban shrinkage regression model, urban spatial expansion and the increase in secondary industry population were factors that aggravated urban shrinkage. The main influencing factors of city shrinkage in the regions are different and need to be studied in-depth and meticulously in combination with the local development situation. This study plays a vital role in characterizing city activities and identifying urban shrinkage while providing a reference for urban planning and policy setting.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0733-9488 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3180  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zangeneh, P.; Hamledari, H.; McCabe, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying Remoteness for Risk and Resilience Assessment Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering Abbreviated Journal J. Comput. Civ. Eng.  
  Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages (down) 04020026  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Remoteness has a crucial role in risk assessments of megaprojects, resilience assessments of communities and infrastructure, and a wide range of public policymaking. The existing measures of remoteness require an extensive amount of population census and of road and infrastructure network data, and often are limited to narrow scopes. This paper presents a methodology to quantify remoteness using nighttime satellite imagery. The light clusters of nighttime satellite imagery are direct yet unintended consequences of human settled populations and urbanization; therefore, the absence of illuminated clusters is considered as evidence of remoteness. The proposed nighttime remoteness index (NIRI) conceptualizes the remoteness based on the distribution of nighttime lights within radii of up to 1,000 km. A predictive model was created using machine learning techniques such as multivariate adaptive regression splines and support vector machines regressions to establish a reliable and accurate link between nighttime lights and the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). The model was used to establish NIRI for the United States and Canada, and in different years. The index was compared with the Canadian remoteness indexes published by Statistics Canada.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0887-3801 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2937  
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Author Liu, J.; Cai, J.; Lin, S.; Zhao, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Analysis of Factors Affecting a Driver’s Driving Speed Selection in Low Illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Advanced Transportation Abbreviated Journal Journal of Advanced Transportation  
  Volume 2020 Issue Pages (down) Article ID 2817801  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract To better understand a driver’s driving speed selection behaviour in low illumination, a self-designed questionnaire was applied to investigate driving ability in low illumination, and the influencing factors of low-illumination driving speed selection behaviour were discussed from the driver’s perspective. The reliability and validity of 243 questionnaires were tested, and multiple linear regression was used to analyse the comprehensive influence of demographic variables, driving speed in a low-illumination environment with street lights and driving ability on speed selection behaviour in low illumination without street lights. Pearson’s correlation test showed that there was no correlation among age, education, accidents in the past 3 years, and speed selection behaviour in low illumination, but gender, driving experience, number of night-driving days per week, and average annual mileage were significantly correlated with speed selection behaviour. In a low-illumination environment, driving ability has a significant influence on a driver’s speed selection behaviour. Technical driving ability under low-illumination conditions of street lights has the greatest influence on speed selection behaviour on a road with a speed limit of 120 km/h (β = 0.51). Risk perception ability has a significant negative impact on speed selection behaviour on roads with speed limits of 80 km/h and 120 km/h (β = −0.25 and β = −0.34, respectively). Driving speed in night-driving environment with street lights also has a positive influence on speed selection behaviour in low illumination (β = 0.61; β = 0.28; β = 0.37).  
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  ISSN 0197-6729 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2913  
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Author Franklin, M.; Yin, X.; McConnell, R.; Fruin, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Association of the Built Environment With Childhood Psychosocial Stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication JAMA Network Open Abbreviated Journal JAMA Netw Open  
  Volume 3 Issue 10 Pages (down) e2017634  
  Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Importance: Emerging research suggests that factors associated with the built environment, including artificial light, air pollution, and noise, may adversely affect children's mental health, while living near green space may reduce stress. Little is known about the combined roles of these factors on children's stress. Objective: To investigate associations between components of the built environment with personal and home characteristics in a large cohort of children who were assessed for perceived stress. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, a total of 2290 Southern California Children's Health Study participants residing in 8 densely populated urban communities responded to detailed questionnaires. Exposures of artificial light at night (ALAN) derived from satellite observations, near-roadway air pollution (NRP) determined from a dispersion model, noise estimated from the US Traffic Noise Model, and green space from satellite observations of the enhanced vegetation index were linked to each participant's geocoded residence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Children's stress was assessed at ages 13 to 14 years and 15 to 16 years using the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), scaled from 0 to 16, with higher scores indicating greater perceived stress. Measurements were conducted in 2010 and 2012, and data were analyzed from February 6 to August 24, 2019. Multivariate mixed-effects models were used to examine multiple exposures; modification and mediation analyses were also conducted. Results: Among the 2290 children in this study, 1149 were girls (50%); mean (SD) age was 13.5 (0.6) years. Girls had significantly higher perceived stress measured by PSS-4 (mean [SD] score, 5.7 [3.4]) than boys (4.9 [3.2]). With increasing age (from 13.5 [0.6] to 15.3 [0.6] years), the mean PSS-4 score rose from 5.6 (3.3) to 6.0 (3.4) in girls but decreased for boys from 5.0 (3.2) to 4.7 (3.1). Multivariate mixed-effects models examining multiple exposures indicated that exposure to secondhand smoke in the home was associated with a 0.85 (95% CI, 0.46-1.24) increase in the PSS-4 score. Of the factors related to the physical environment, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in ALAN was associated with a 0.57 (95% CI, 0.05-1.09) unit increase in the PSS-4 score together with a 0.16 score increase per IQR increase of near-roadway air pollution (95% CI, 0.02-0.30) and a -0.24 score decrease per IQR increase of the enhanced vegetation index (95% CI, -0.45 to -0.04). Income modified the ALAN effect size estimate; participants in households earning less than $48000 per year had significantly greater stress per IQR increase in ALAN. Sleep duration partially mediated the associations between stress and both enhanced vegetation index (17%) and ALAN (18%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, children's exposure to smoke at home in addition to residential exposure to ALAN and near-roadway air pollution were associated with increased perceived stress among young adolescent children. These associations appeared to be partially mitigated by more residential green space. The findings may support the promotion of increased residential green spaces to reduce pollution associated with the built environment, with possible mental health benefits for children.  
  Address Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2574-3805 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33084897 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3182  
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Author Kaplan, K.A.; Mashash, M.; Williams, R.; Batchelder, H.; Starr-Glass, L.; Zeitzer, J.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of Light Flashes vs Sham Therapy During Sleep With Adjunct Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Sleep Quality Among Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication JAMA Network Open Abbreviated Journal JAMA Netw Open  
  Volume 2 Issue 9 Pages (down) e1911944  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Importance: Owing to biological, behavioral, and societal factors, sleep duration in teenagers is often severely truncated, leading to pervasive sleep deprivation. Objective: To determine whether a novel intervention, using both light exposure during sleep and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), would increase total sleep time in teenagers by enabling them to go to sleep earlier than usual. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, conducted between November 1, 2013, and May 31, 2016, among 102 adolescents enrolled full-time in grades 9 to 12, who expressed difficulty going to bed earlier and waking up early enough, was composed of 2 phases. In phase 1, participants were assigned to receive either 3 weeks of light or sham therapy and were asked to try to go to sleep earlier. In phase 2, participants received 4 brief CBT sessions in addition to a modified light or sham therapy. All analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Interventions: Light therapy consisted of receiving a 3-millisecond light flash every 20 seconds during the final 3 hours of sleep (phase 1) or final 2 hours of sleep (phase 2). Sham therapy used an identical device, but delivered 1 minute of light pulses (appearing in 20-second intervals, for a total of 3 pulses) per hour during the final 3 hours of sleep (phase 1) or 2 hours of sleep (phase 2). Light therapy occurred every night during the 4-week intervention. Cognitive behavioral therapy consisted of four 50-minute in-person sessions once per week. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome measures included diary-based sleep times, momentary ratings of evening sleepiness, and subjective measures of sleepiness and sleep quality. Results: Among the 102 participants (54 female [52.9%]; mean [SD] age, 15.6 [1.1] years), 72 were enrolled in phase 1 and 30 were enrolled in phase 2. Mixed-effects models revealed that light therapy alone was inadequate in changing the timing of sleep. However, compared with sham therapy plus CBT alone, light therapy plus CBT significantly moved sleep onset a mean (SD) of 50.1 (27.5) minutes earlier and increased nightly total sleep time by a mean (SD) of 43.3 (35.0) minutes. Light therapy plus CBT also resulted in a 7-fold greater increase in bedtime compliance than that observed among participants receiving sham plus CBT (mean [SD], 2.21 [3.91] vs 0.29 [0.76]), as well as a mean 0.55-point increase in subjective evening sleepiness as compared with a mean 0.48-point decrease in participants receiving sham plus CBT as measured on a 7-point sleepiness scale. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that light exposure during sleep, in combination with a brief, motivation-focused CBT intervention, was able to consistently move bedtimes earlier and increase total sleep time in teenagers. This type of passive light intervention in teenagers may lead to novel therapeutic applications. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01406691.  
  Address Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2574-3805 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31553469 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2683  
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