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Author Suk, J.Y.; Walter, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title New nighttime roadway lighting documentation applied to public safety at night: A case study in San Antonio, Texas Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Sustainable Cities and Society Abbreviated Journal Sustainable Cities and Society  
  Volume 46 Issue Pages (down) 101459  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security; Planning  
  Abstract Built environment and public safety professionals view street lighting as an important factor in improving the well-being of the community at night. Extant research that has examined the relationship between street lighting and public safety has found inconclusive or mixed results and has called for more extensive lighting metrics. Using new lighting measurement technologies and geographic information science, this study builds on previous work to demonstrate new metrics to consider when evaluating public safety, specifically crime and traffic accidents. Downtown San Antonio, Texas is used as a case study to explore illuminance levels on roadways and the driver’s eye, and how these metrics can be used to understand the lighting characteristics of where crime and traffic accidents occur. The findings indicate that the central downtown district in San Antonio has higher illuminance levels than the existing roadway lighting guidelines while the residential downtown neighborhoods have insufficient light levels. Statistical analysis reveals that roadway illuminance levels are higher in areas where no crime occurred and driver’s eye illuminance levels are lower in areas with no traffic accidents. The findings prove the usefulness of new lighting documentation techniques and support the importance of considering illuminance metrics when assessing crime and traffic accidents at night.  
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  ISSN 2210-6707 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2191  
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Author Mpakairi, K.S.; Muvengwi, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-time lights and their influence on summer night land surface temperature in two urban cities of Zimbabwe: A geospatial perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Urban Climate Abbreviated Journal Urban Climate  
  Volume 29 Issue Pages (down) 100468  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Owing to the developments that exist in urban landscapes, urban areas experience climates that are different from their surroundings even when in the same climatic region. This is a prominent phenomenon in most urban areas and is commonly known as Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI). An understanding of some of the drivers of SUHI is imperative for cities worldwide if they endeavor to suppress the socio-economic mishaps related to extremely high UHI. In this study, we sought to explain the drivers of SUHI in two developing cities in Zimbabwe using remote sensing data. We do this through the use of a classification and regression model. The model used climate, land descriptors and anthropogenic activity data as predictor variables against summer night land surface temperature. Using the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) for evaluation, modelled SUHI was strongly related to actual SUHI. We also found out that night-time lights, a proxy of anthropogenic activity, contributed more to summer night surface urban heat island as compared to other variables used in the study. This study adds more knowledge on the likely drivers of UHI for southern African cities. By identifying SUHI drivers in urban cities, it is plausible to formulate policies or initiatives that regulate extreme summer night SUHI.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2212-0955 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2497  
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Author Nelson, J.A.; Bugbee, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Economic analysis of greenhouse lighting: light emitting diodes vs. high intensity discharge fixtures Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages (down) e99010  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Lighting technologies for plant growth are improving rapidly, providing numerous options for supplemental lighting in greenhouses. Here we report the photosynthetic (400-700 nm) photon efficiency and photon distribution pattern of two double-ended HPS fixtures, five mogul-base HPS fixtures, ten LED fixtures, three ceramic metal halide fixtures, and two fluorescent fixtures. The two most efficient LED and the two most efficient double-ended HPS fixtures had nearly identical efficiencies at 1.66 to 1.70 micromoles per joule. These four fixtures represent a dramatic improvement over the 1.02 micromoles per joule efficiency of the mogul-base HPS fixtures that are in common use. The best ceramic metal halide and fluorescent fixtures had efficiencies of 1.46 and 0.95 micromoles per joule, respectively. We also calculated the initial capital cost of fixtures per photon delivered and determined that LED fixtures cost five to ten times more than HPS fixtures. The five-year electric plus fixture cost per mole of photons is thus 2.3 times higher for LED fixtures, due to high capital costs. Compared to electric costs, our analysis indicates that the long-term maintenance costs are small for both technologies. If widely spaced benches are a necessary part of a production system, the unique ability of LED fixtures to efficiently focus photons on specific areas can be used to improve the photon capture by plant canopies. Our analysis demonstrates, however, that the cost per photon delivered is higher in these systems, regardless of fixture category. The lowest lighting system costs are realized when an efficient fixture is coupled with effective canopy photon capture.  
  Address Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Plant Soils and Climate, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24905835; PMCID:PMC4048233 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2233  
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Author Huss, A.; van Wel, L.; Bogaards, L.; Vrijkotte, T.; Wolf, L.; Hoek, G.; Vermeulen, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shedding Some Light in the Dark-A Comparison of Personal Measurements with Satellite-Based Estimates of Exposure to Light at Night among Children in the Netherlands Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume 127 Issue 6 Pages (down) 67001  
  Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Exposure to light at night (LAN) can perturb the biological clock and affect sleep and health. Previous epidemiological studies have evaluated LAN levels measured by satellites, but the validity of this measure as a proxy for personal LAN exposure is unclear. In addition, outdoor satellite-measured LAN levels are higher in urban environments, which means that this measure could potentially represent a proxy for other, likely urban, environmental exposures. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated correlations of satellite-assessed LAN with measured bedroom light levels and explored correlations with other environmental exposures, in particular, air pollution, green space, and area-level socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: We compared satellite measurements with evening and nighttime bedroom measurements of illuminance (in units of lux) for 256 children, and we evaluated correlations between satellite-based measures and other urban exposures such as air pollution, area-level SEP, and surrounding green space for 3,021 children. RESULTS: Satellite-measured LAN levels (nanowatts per centimeter squared per steradian) were not correlated with measured evening or nighttime lux levels [Spearman correlation coefficients ([Formula: see text]) [Formula: see text] to 0.04]. There was a weak correlation with measurements during the darkest time period if parents and their children reported that outdoor light sometimes or usually influenced indoor light levels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). In contrast, satellite-measured LAN levels were correlated with air pollution ([Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]), and surrounding green space ([Formula: see text] for green space within [Formula: see text] of the home). A weak correlation with area-level SEP was also observed ([Formula: see text]). CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor satellite-assessed outdoor LAN exposure levels were correlated with urban environmental exposures, but they were not a good proxy for indoor evening or nighttime personal exposure as measured in our study population of 12-y-old children. Studies planning to evaluate potential risks from LAN should consider such modifying factors as curtains and indoor lighting and the use of electronic devices and should include performing indoor or personal measurements to validate any exposure proxies. The moderate-to-strong correlation of outdoor LAN with other environmental exposures should be accounted for in epidemiological investigations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3431.  
  Address 4 Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht , Utrecht, Netherlands  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31157976 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2532  
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Author Aubrecht, C.; Stojan-Dolar, M.; de Sherbinin, A.; Jaiteh, M.; Longcore, T.; Elvidge, C. url  openurl
  Title Lighting governance for protected areas and beyond – Identifying the urgent need for sustainable management of artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Earthzine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down) e61460  
  Keywords Editorial  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 465  
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