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Author Grubisic, M.; Haim, A.; Bhusal, P.; Dominoni, D.M.; Gabriel, K.M.A.; Jechow, A.; Kupprat, F.; Lerner, A.; Marchant, P.; Riley, W.; Stebelova, K.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Zeman, M.; Zubidat, A.E.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light Pollution, Circadian Photoreception, and Melatonin in Vertebrates Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 11 Issue 22 Pages (down) 6400  
  Keywords Animals; Review  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasing exponentially worldwide, accelerated by the transition to new efficient lighting technologies. However, ALAN and resulting light pollution can cause unintended physiological consequences. In vertebrates, production of melatonin—the “hormone of darkness” and a key player in circadian regulation—can be suppressed by ALAN. In this paper, we provide an overview of research on melatonin and ALAN in vertebrates. We discuss how ALAN disrupts natural photic environments, its effect on melatonin and circadian rhythms, and different photoreceptor systems across vertebrate taxa. We then present the results of a systematic review in which we identified studies on melatonin under typical light-polluted conditions in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. Melatonin is suppressed by extremely low light intensities in many vertebrates, ranging from 0.01–0.03 lx for fishes and rodents to 6 lx for sensitive humans. Even lower, wavelength-dependent intensities are implied by some studies and require rigorous testing in ecological contexts. In many studies, melatonin suppression occurs at the minimum light levels tested, and, in better-studied groups, melatonin suppression is reported to occur at lower light levels. We identify major research gaps and conclude that, for most groups, crucial information is lacking. No studies were identified for amphibians and reptiles and long-term impacts of low-level ALAN exposure are unknown. Given the high sensitivity of vertebrate melatonin production to ALAN and the paucity of available information, it is crucial to research impacts of ALAN further in order to inform effective mitigation strategies for human health and the wellbeing and fitness of vertebrates in natural ecosystems.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2733  
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Author Dunster, G.P.; de la Iglesia, L.; Ben-Hamo, M.; Nave, C.; Fleischer, J.G.; Panda, S.; de la Iglesia, H.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleepmore in Seattle: Later school start times are associated with more sleep and better performance in high school students Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci. Adv.  
  Volume 4 Issue 12 Pages (down) eaau6200  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Most teenagers are chronically sleep deprived. One strategy proposed to lengthen adolescent sleep is to delay secondary school start times. This would allow students to wake up later without shifting their bedtime, which is biologically determined by the circadian clock, resulting in a net increase in sleep. So far, there is no objective quantitative data showing that a single intervention such as delaying the school start time significantly increases daily sleep. The Seattle School District delayed the secondary school start time by nearly an hour. We carried out a pre-/post-research study and show that there was an increase in the daily median sleep duration of 34 min, associated with a 4.5% increase in the median grades of the students and an improvement in attendance.  
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  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2131  
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Author Li, X.; Zhou, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban mapping using DMSP/OLS stable night-time light: a review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing  
  Volume 38 Issue 21 Pages (down) 6030-6046  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Review  
  Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescane System (DMSP/OLS) stable night-time light (NTL) data showed great potential in urban extent mapping across a variety of scales with historical records dating back to 1990s. In order to advance this data, a systematic methodology review on NTL-based urban extent mapping was carried out, with emphases on four aspects including the saturation of luminosity, the blooming effect, the intercalibration of time series, and their temporal pattern adjustment. We think ancillary features (e.g. land surface conditions and socioeconomic activities) can help reveal more spatial details in urban core regions with high digital number (DN) values. In addition, dynamic optimal thresholds are needed to address issues of different exaggeration of NTL data in the large scale urban mapping. Then, we reviewed three key aspects (reference region, reference satellite/year, and calibration model) in the current intercalibration framework of NTL time series, and summarized major reference regions in literature that were used for intercalibration, which is critical to achieve a globally consistent series of NTL DN values over years. Moreover, adjustment of temporal pattern on intercalibrated NTL series is needed to trace the urban sprawl process, particularly in rapidly developing regions. In addition, we analysed those applications for urban extent mapping based on the new generation NTL data of Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite. Finally, we prospected the challenges and opportunities including the improvement of temporally inconsistent NTL series, mitigation of spatial heterogeneity of blooming effect in NTL, and synthesis of different NTL satellites, in global urban extent mapping.  
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  ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2222  
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Author Willmott, N.J.; Henneken, J.; Selleck, C.J.; Jones, T.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night alters life history in a nocturnal orb-web spider Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication PeerJ Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages (down) e5599  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The prevalence of artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasing rapidly around the world. The potential physiological costs of this night lighting are often evident in life history shifts. We investigated the effects of chronic night-time exposure to ecologically relevant levels of LED lighting on the life history traits of the nocturnal Australian garden orb-web spider (Eriophora biapicata). We reared spiders under a 12-h day and either a 12-h natural darkness (∼0 lux) or a 12-h dim light (∼20 lux) night and assessed juvenile development, growth and mortality, and adult reproductive success and survival. We found that exposure to ALAN accelerated juvenile development, resulting in spiders progressing through fewer moults, and maturing earlier and at a smaller size. There was a significant increase in daily juvenile mortality for spiders reared under 20 lux, but the earlier maturation resulted in a comparable number of 0 lux and 20 lux spiders reaching maturity. Exposure to ALAN also considerably reduced the number of eggs produced by females, and this was largely associated with ALAN-induced reductions in body size. Despite previous observations of increased fitness for some orb-web spiders in urban areas and near night lighting, it appears that exposure to artificial night lighting may lead to considerable developmental costs. Future research will need to consider the detrimental effects of ALAN combined with foraging benefits when studying nocturnal insectivores that forage around artificial lights.  
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  ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2023  
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Author Depner, C.M.; Melanson, E.L.; McHill, A.W.; Wright, K.P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mistimed food intake and sleep alters 24-hour time-of-day patterns of the human plasma proteome Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 115 Issue 23 Pages (down) E5390-E5399  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Proteomics holds great promise for understanding human physiology, developing health biomarkers, and precision medicine. However, how much the plasma proteome varies with time of day and is regulated by the master circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus brain clock, assessed here by the melatonin rhythm, is largely unknown. Here, we assessed 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins in six healthy men during daytime food intake and nighttime sleep in phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian alignment) versus daytime sleep and nighttime food intake out of phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian misalignment induced by simulated nightshift work). We identified 24-h time-of-day patterns in 573 of 1,129 proteins analyzed, with 30 proteins showing strong regulation by the circadian cycle. Relative to circadian alignment, the average abundance and/or 24-h time-of-day patterns of 127 proteins were altered during circadian misalignment. Altered proteins were associated with biological pathways involved in immune function, metabolism, and cancer. Of the 30 circadian-regulated proteins, the majority peaked between 1400 hours and 2100 hours, and these 30 proteins were associated with basic pathways involved in extracellular matrix organization, tyrosine kinase signaling, and signaling by receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2. Furthermore, circadian misalignment altered multiple proteins known to regulate glucose homeostasis and/or energy metabolism, with implications for altered metabolic physiology. Our findings demonstrate the circadian clock, the behavioral wake-sleep/food intake-fasting cycle, and interactions between these processes regulate 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins and help identify mechanisms of circadian misalignment that may contribute to metabolic dysregulation.  
  Address Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29784788 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1916  
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