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Author Hiltunen, A. P., Kumpula, T., &Tykkyläinen, M.
Title Yövalaistuksen ja valopäästöjen alueellinen jakautuminen Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Geoinformatiikka Yhteiskunnassa Abbreviated Journal
Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages (up)
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Remotely-sensed night-time lights (NTL) reveal the occurrence of human development while excessive light emissions cause ecological impacts and may create human health hazards. The aim of this research is to find out the factors affecting the quantity of remotely-sensed NTLs in Finland at 2015. We also aim to unveil how much NTLs have changed in Finland from 1993 to 2012 and what is the share of NTLs for different land use types in Finland in 2015. Answers to these questions are achieved with satellite radiance data and data on spatial structure, multiple linear regression (MLR), and change-detection methods. National and regional MLR models were produced to explain NTL and to compare the suitability of this modelling approach in different regions. Radiance is explained by population density, industrial building density, and lit roads density. Surprisingly, the brightest areas in Finland seem to be in Närpiö, a rural area with low population density but where greenhouse farming is common. Based on change-detection, new light sources have emerged because of the expansion of mining and tourism industries.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Finnish Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2354
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Author Neale, W., Marr, J., McKelvey, N., & Kuzel, M.
Title Nighttime Visibility in Varying Moonlight Conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1005 Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Public Safety; Moonlight; Vision
Abstract When the visibility of an object or person in the roadway from a driver’s perspective is an issue, the potential effect of moonlight is sometimes questioned. To assess this potential effect, methods typically used to quantify visibility were performed during conditions with no moon and with a full moon. In the full moon condition, measurements were collected from initial moon rise until the moon reached peak azimuth. Baseline ambient light measurements of illumination at the test surface were measured in both no moon and full moon scenarios. Additionally, a vehicle with activated low beam headlamps was positioned in the testing area and the change in illumination at two locations forward of the vehicle was recorded at thirty-minute intervals as the moon rose to the highest position in the sky. Also, two separate luminance readings were recorded during the test intervals, one location 75 feet in front and to the left of the vehicle, and another 150 feet forward of the vehicle. These luminance readings yielding the change in reflected light attributable to the moon. In addition to the quantitative measurement of light contributed by the moon, documentation to the change in visibility of objects and pedestrians located on the roadway were documented through photographs. Calibrated nighttime photographs were taken from the driver’s perspective inside the vehicle with low beam headlamps activated. The photographs were analyzed after testing to determine how the light intensity of the pixels in the photographs changed at each thirty-minute interval due to the additional light contribution from the moon. The results of this testing indicate that the quantifiable change in visibility distance attributable to added moonlight was negligible, and in real-world driving situations, the effect of additional illumination from a full moon would be unlikely to affect the detection of an object or pedestrian in or near the travel lane of the roadway.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2355
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Author Arnott, J. T.
Title Growth Response of White and Englemann Spruce Seedlings to Extended Photoperiod Using Three Light Intensities Type Report
Year 1982 Publication Technical Report: Pacific Forestry Centre Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Plants
Abstract Four seedlots of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and three of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry), covering a range of 10 degrees of latitude and a range of altitudes, were sown in BC/ CFS Styroblocks and grown in a heated greenhouse and an unheated shadehouse, using incandescent light to provide a 19-h photoperiod. Four intensities of lighting were used: 0, 100,200, and 400 Ix. A second experiment with the same seedlots was conducted in growth rooms that were programmed to evaluate the effect of low night temperature on seedling shoot growth when the photoperiod was extended to 19 h, using a light intensity of 200 Ix.

Shoot length of white and Engelmann spruce seedlings grown under an extended daylength of 100 Ix were significantly taller than the control (0 Ix). There were no significant differences in shoot length or weight among the three intensities of light used to extend the photoperiod for all seedlots except the southern latitude-low elevation population of Engelmann spruce. The more northern populations of white spruce and the high altitude populations of Engelmann spruce did not require light intensities higher than 100 Ix to maintain apical growth. Low night temperature (7°C) did produce significantly smaller seedlings than the warm night (1SoC) regime. However, terminal resting buds of seedlings grown under the cool night regime did not form any sooner than on those seedlings grown under warm nights.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2372
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Author Lumsden, P. J., & Furuya, M.
Title Evidence for Two Actions of Light in the Photoperiodic Induction of Flowering in <italic>Pharbitis nil</italic> Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Plant and Cell Physiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Plants
Abstract Using one-day-old light-grown seedlings of Pharbitis nil we have shown that there are two distinct responses to light during the inductive dark period. The first is the classic night-break, which inhibits flowering at a specific stage of the circadian rhythm (assumed to be the basis of dark time measurement). The second action is to control the phase of this rhythm. The two responses were compared at the 6th and 8th hour of darkness. They differed in their dose responses, and by using very short exposures it was possible to achieve one response without the other. The response of the rhythm to light displayed characteristics of other circadian rhythms; the direction and sensitivity of the phase shift changed between the 6th and 8th h, the rhythm was reset by longer exposures to light, and with one critical light treatment at the appropriate phase, the rhythm was apparently abolished. These results offer direct support for an external coincidence model in the photoperiodic control of floral induction.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1471-9053 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2375
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Author Croft, T.A.
Title The brightness of lights on Earth at night, digitally recorded by DMSP satellite Type Report
Year 1979 Publication USGS Numbered Series Abbreviated Journal
Volume 80-167 Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The U.S. Air Force has operated its Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) for nearly a decade, and film images from the system have been openly available since 1973. Films are well suited for the study of weather, and users of such films have derived much useful data. For many potential remote sensing applications, however, a quantitative measurement of the brightness of the imaged light patterns is needed, and it cannot be extracted with adequte accuracy from the films. Such information is contained in the telemetry from the spacecraft and is retained on digital tapes, which store the images for a few days while they await filming. For practical reasons, it has not heretofore been feasible for the Air Force to provide a remote-sensing user with these digital data, and the quantitative brightness information has been lost with the erasure of tapes for re-use.

For the purpose of evaluation of tapes as a means for remote sensing, the Air Force recently did provide to the author six examples containing records of nighttime DMSP imagery similar to that which has previously 1 been evaluated by SRI International in a film format. The digital data create many new applications for these images, owing to a combination of several factors, the most important of which are the preservation of photometric information and of full spatial resolution. In this evaluation, stress has been placed upon determination of the broad potential value of the data rather than the full exploitation of any one aspect of it. The effort was guided by an objective to develop handling methods for the vast body of numbers--methods which will be practical for use in a research or engineering environment where budgets are limited, and specialized capabilities and image reproduction equipment has not already been developed. We report the degree of success obtained in this effort, pointing out the relative strengths and the relative limitations, as compared to the sophisticated, weather-oriented data processing which is well suited for the Air Force requirements.

Both geometric and photometric calibration methods are evaluated. An image can be considered as a 3-dimensional array, X, Y, Z, in which X and Y are the coordinates of a picture element (pixel) and Z is the brightness at that location. A method of approach to handling these parameters, particularly Y and Z, is developed in a form quite different from that which serves the operational applications.

The user of digital data will need the film images which are generated by the Air Force from the same data as is provided on digital tape. In the first stages of analysis, the films provide both a convenient index and a guide to identification of large patterns in the data. Additionally, the infrared (8 to 13 0 film provides a valuable indicator of cloud cover.

Two general conclusions are drawn from this study. Firstly, the digital DMSP data have great potential value but their cost, in terms of the interruption of the present operational routine, is quite high. Therefore, if a program is undertaken to provide for the open availability of an archive of digital records, great care must be exercised in selecting only those records which have unusually high value in order that the effort will be cost-effective. Secondly, it is concluded that several aspects of the program, well designed for Air Force operational purposes, are not adapted to earth-sensing needs. This is probably inevitable, since the two applications are largely different and in some ways incompatible. For example, the nighttime visual sensor saturates in the center of major cities and in moderately large fires (such as gas flares). This saturation prevents the analyst from integrating photometric parameters. For weather observation, this inability is unimportant, and acceptance of such saturation makes feasible a decrease in the data rate.

Such limitations in the data will probably be overcome only through modifying the existing system or the implementation of a similar system designed specifically to serve earth-sensing needs.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2384
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