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Author Min, B.; O'Keeffe, Z.; Zhang, F.
Title Whose Power Gets Cut? Using High-Frequency Satellite Images to Measure Power Supply Irregularity Type Book Whole
Year 2017 Publication Policy Research Working Papers Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract In many parts of the developing world, access to electricity is uneven and inconsistent, characterized by frequent and long hours of power outages. Many countries now engage in systematic load shedding because of persistent power shortages. When and where electricity is provided can have important impacts on welfare and growth. But quantifying those impacts is difficult because utility-level data on power outages are rarely available and not always reliable. This paper introduces a new method of tracking power outages from outer space. This measure identifies outage-prone areas by detecting excess fluctuations in light outputs. To develop these measures, the study processed the complete historical archive of sub-orbital Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime imagery captured over South Asia on every night since 1993. The analysis computes annual estimates of the Power Supply Irregularity index for all 600,000 villages in India from 1993 to 2013. The Power Supply Irregularity index measures are consistent with ground-based measures of power supply reliability from the Indian Human Development Survey, and with feeder-level outage data from one of the largest utilities in India. The study's methods open new opportunities to study the determinants of power outages as well as their impacts on welfare.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The World Bank Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2109
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Author Liu, Q.; Manning, A.J.; Duston, J.
Title Light intensity and suppression of nocturnal plasma melatonin in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Animals
Abstract The problem of early sexual maturation among farmed Arctic charr and other salmonids can be effectively reduced by 24h light overwinter, provided it is bright enough to over-ride interference from the natural daylength cycle. To determine the threshold light intensity to suppress the nocturnal elevation of plasma melatonin, three groups of individually tagged fish (n=26-28/group ca. 1040g) were reared on 12h light: 12h dark (LD 12:12) and subjected to nighttime light intensities of either 50-65, 0.1-0.3 or 0 (control) lux for five months (November to April). Daytime light intensity was 720-750lx. Diel plasma melatonin profiles in both November and April were similar; mean daytime levels ranged from 20 to 100pg/ml, and nighttime levels were inversely proportional to light intensity. In the control group at 0lx, plasma melatonin increased about four-fold after lights-off, ranging between 320 and 430pg/ml. Nighttime light intensity of 0.1-0.3lx halved plasma melatonin levels to 140-220pg/ml, and 50-65lx further reduced the levels to one quarter of the control group, 68-108pg/ml. Among the lit groups, daytime plasma melatonin levels were about 20-30pg/ml, significantly lower than the nocturnal levels suggesting the diel hormonal rhythm was not completely abolished. Fish grew steadily from about 1100g to 1600g between November and April, independent of light intensity (P=.67). Overall, the study demonstrated the sensitivity of pineal melatonin hormone to different light intensities in Arctic charr.
Address Department of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Dalhousie University, Agricultural Campus, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30471350 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2111
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Author Boyce, P.R.
Title The Present and Future of Lighting Research Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication SDAR* Journal of Sustainable Design & Applied Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages (up)
Keywords Commentary; Lighting; Vision; Human Health
Abstract The aim of this paper is to consider where lighting research is today and what its future might be. There is little doubt that, today, lighting research is an active field. A brief review of the topics being studied reveals that they range from residual studies on visibility and visual discomfort, through attempts to identify the influence of lighting on factors beyond visibility such as mood and behaviour, to the whole new field of light and health. But activity alone is not enough to justify a future. For lighting research to have a future it is necessary for it to

be influential. To become influential, research needs to focus its attention on outcomes that matter to people and the elements of those outcomes on which lighting is known to have a major influence. Further, researchers will have to be determined to overcome the barriers to changing lighting practice. By doing this, lighting research may change the world for the better, to be an important topic, not an irrelevance.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2113
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Author McGlashan, E.M.; Poudel, G.R.; Vidafar, P.; Drummond, S.P.A.; Cain, S.W.
Title Imaging Individual Differences in the Response of the Human Suprachiasmatic Area to Light Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Frontiers in Neurology Abbreviated Journal Front. Neurol.
Volume 9 Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Circadian disruption is associated with poor health outcomes, including sleep and mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus acts as the master biological clock in mammals, regulating circadian rhythms throughout the body. The clock is synchronized to the day/night cycle via retinal light exposure. The BOLD-fMRI response of the human suprachiasmatic area to light has been shown to be greater in the night than in the day, consistent with the known sensitivity of the clock to light at night. Whether the BOLD-fMRI response of the human suprachiasmatic area to light is related to a functional outcome has not been demonstrated. In a pilot study (n = 10), we investigated suprachiasmatic area activation in response to light in a 30 s block-paradigm of lights on (100 lux) and lights off (< 1 lux) using the BOLD-fMRI response, compared to each participant's melatonin suppression response to moderate indoor light (100 lux). We found a significant correlation between activation in the suprachiasmatic area in response to light in the scanner and melatonin suppression, with increased melatonin suppression being associated with increased suprachiasmatic area activation in response to the same light level. These preliminary findings are a first step toward using imaging techniques to measure individual differences in circadian light sensitivity, a measure that may have clinical relevance in understanding vulnerability in disorders that are influenced by circadian disruption.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1664-2295 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2114
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Author Zapata, M.J.; Sullivan, S.M.P.; Gray, S.M.
Title Artificial Lighting at Night in Estuaries—Implications from Individuals to Ecosystems Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Estuaries and Coasts Abbreviated Journal
Volume In press Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Artificial lighting at night (ALAN) produced by urban, industrial, and roadway lighting, as well as other sources, has dramatically increased in recent decades, especially in coastal environments that support dense human populations. Artificial “lightscapes” are characterized by distinct spatial, temporal, and spectral patterns that can alter natural patterns of light and dark with consequences across levels of biological organization. At the individual level, ALAN can elicit a suite of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light-mediated processes such as diel activity patterns and predator-prey interactions. ALAN has also been shown to modify community composition and trophic structure, with implications for ecosystem-level processes including primary productivity, nutrient cycling, and the energetic linkages between aquatic and terrestrial systems. Here, we review the state of the science relative to the impacts of ALAN on estuaries, which is an important step in assessing the long-term sustainability of coastal regions. We first consider how multiple properties of ALAN (e.g., intensity and spectral content) influence the interaction between physiology and behavior of individual estuarine biota (drawing from studies on invertebrates, fishes, and birds). Second, we link individual- to community- and ecosystem-level responses, with a focus on the impacts of ALAN on food webs and implications for estuarine ecosystem functions. Coastal aquatic communities and ecosystems have been identified as a key priority for ALAN research, and a cohesive research framework will be critical for understanding and mitigating ecological consequences.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2116
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