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Author Cherrie, J.W.
Title Shedding Light on the Association between Night Work and Breast Cancer Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Annals of Work Exposures and Health Abbreviated Journal Ann Work Expo Health
Volume 63 Issue 6 Pages 608–611
Keywords Commentary; Human Health; Cancer; Breast cancer; shift work
Abstract Shift work that involves circadian disruption has been classified as probably carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, although more recent epidemiological evidence is not consistent. Several mechanisms have been postulated to explain an association between night work and female breast cancer, but the most likely is suppression of the hormone melatonin by light exposure at night. Three articles recently published in this journal describe aspects of exposure to light during night work. These articles and other evidence suggest that nighttime light levels may not always be sufficient to affect melatonin production, which could in part explain the inconsistencies in the epidemiological data. There is need to improve the specificity and reliability of exposure assessments in future epidemiological studies of night shift workers.
Address Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Edinburgh, UK
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ISSN (down) 2398-7308 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31175355 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2530
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Author Giraudeau, M.; Sepp, T.; Ujvari, B.; Ewald, P.W.; Thomas, F.
Title Human activities might influence oncogenic processes in wild animal populations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume 2 Issue Pages 1065-1070
Keywords Commentary; Animals
Abstract Based on the abundant studies available on humans showing clear associations between rapid environmental changes and the rate of neoplasia, we propose that human activities might increase cancer rate in wild populations through numerous processes. Most of the research on this topic has concentrated on wildlife cancer prevalence in environments that are heavily contaminated with anthropogenic chemicals. Here, we propose that human activities might also increase cancer rate in wild populations through additional processes including light pollution, accidental (for example, human waste) or intentional (for example, bird feeders) wildlife feeding (and the associated change of diet), or reduction of genetic diversity in human-impacted habitats. The human species can thus be defined as an oncogenic species, moderating the environment in the way that it causes cancer in other wild populations. As human impacts on wildlife are predicted to increase rather than decrease (for example, in the context of urbanization), acknowledging the possible links between human activity and cancer in wild populations is crucial.
Address MIVEGEC, Montpellier, France. frederic.thomas2@ird.fr
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN (down) 2397-334X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29784981 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1921
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Author Halfwerk, W.; Blaas, M.; Kramer, L.; Hijner, N.; Trillo, P.A.; Bernal, X.E.; Page, R.A.; Goutte, S.; Ryan, M.J.; Ellers, J.
Title Adaptive changes in sexual signalling in response to urbanization Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume 3 Issue Pages 374-380
Keywords Animals
Abstract Urbanization can cause species to adjust their sexual displays, because the effectiveness of mating signals is influenced by environmental conditions. Despite many examples that show that mating signals in urban conditions differ from those in rural conditions, we do not know whether these differences provide a combined reproductive and survival benefit to the urban phenotype. Here we show that male tungara frogs have increased the conspicuousness of their calls, which is under strong sexual and natural selection by signal receivers, as an adaptive response to city life. The urban phenotype consequently attracts more females than the forest phenotype, while avoiding the costs that are imposed by eavesdropping bats and midges, which we show are rare in urban areas. Finally, we show in a translocation experiment that urban frogs can reduce risk of predation and parasitism when moved to the forest, but that forest frogs do not increase their sexual attractiveness when moved to the city. Our findings thus reveal that urbanization can rapidly drive adaptive signal change via changes in both natural and sexual selection pressures.
Address Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN (down) 2397-334X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30532046 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2136
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Author Dunster, G.P.; de la Iglesia, L.; Ben-Hamo, M.; Nave, C.; Fleischer, J.G.; Panda, S.; de la Iglesia, H.O.
Title Sleepmore in Seattle: Later school start times are associated with more sleep and better performance in high school students Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci. Adv.
Volume 4 Issue 12 Pages eaau6200
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Most teenagers are chronically sleep deprived. One strategy proposed to lengthen adolescent sleep is to delay secondary school start times. This would allow students to wake up later without shifting their bedtime, which is biologically determined by the circadian clock, resulting in a net increase in sleep. So far, there is no objective quantitative data showing that a single intervention such as delaying the school start time significantly increases daily sleep. The Seattle School District delayed the secondary school start time by nearly an hour. We carried out a pre-/post-research study and show that there was an increase in the daily median sleep duration of 34 min, associated with a 4.5% increase in the median grades of the students and an improvement in attendance.
Address
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ISSN (down) 2375-2548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2131
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Author David, A.; Smet, K.A.G.; Whitehead, L.
Title Methods for Assessing Quantity and Quality of Illumination Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Annual Review of Vision Science Abbreviated Journal Annu Rev Vis Sci
Volume 5 Issue Pages 479-502
Keywords Vision; Review; Photometry; Colorimetry
Abstract Human vision provides useful information about the shape and color of the objects around us. It works well in many, but not all, lighting conditions. Since the advent of human-made light sources, it has been important to understand how illumination affects vision quality, but this has been surprisingly difficult. The widespread introduction of solid-state light emitters has increased the urgency of this problem. Experts still debate how lighting can best enable high-quality vision-a key issue since about one-fifth of global electrical power production is used to make light. Photometry, the measurement of the visual quantity of light, is well established, yet significant uncertainties remain. Colorimetry, the measurement of color, has achieved good reproducibility, but researchers still struggle to understand how illumination can best enable high-quality color vision. Fortunately, in recent years, considerable progress has been made. Here, we summarize the current understanding and discuss key areas for future study.
Address Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1, Canada; email: lorne.whitehead@ubc.ca
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (down) 2374-4642 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31226013 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2576
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