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Author Marx, A.; Ziegler Rogers, M.
Title Analysis of Panamanian DMSP/OLS nightlights corroborates suspicions of inaccurate fiscal data: A natural experiment examining the accuracy of GDP data Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment
Volume 8 Issue Pages 99-104
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Governments have incentives to misreport their economic productivity to advance their political goals. These incentives have long been understood, but the validity of government data has been difficult to estimate in the absence of viable external estimates. Using historic Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System nightlights imagery we corroborate reports that Panama's government data has been increasingly politicised since the handover of the Panama Canal on 31 December 1999. The Canal Handover represents a “natural experiment” in which the production of government data changed in Panama for reasons separate from the desire to manipulate that data. The amount of light a country produces at night, known as nightlight production, has been shown to strongly correlate with GDP. Using subnational Panamanian nightlight production from 1996 to 2012, we detect a significant divergence between the relationship of subnational reported GDP and nightlights before the Canal handover (when the U.S.A. was very involved in their statistical agencies) and the correlation after the handover (with no U.S. involvement). Our results indicate that between 2000 and 2012, Panama reported approximately 19% more GDP than what was expected by their nightlight production from 2000 to 2012, or a total of around 40 billion U.S. dollars. Our results suggest governments may engage in political manipulation of government statistics to improve the appearance of government performance. While indirect data can never definitely confirm economic phenomena, this analysis presents a unique research design and application of historic satellite imagery to corroborate reports of GDP misreporting.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (down) 2352-9385 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2479
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Author Ranzoni, J.; Giuliani, G.; Huber, L.; Ray, N.
Title Modelling the nocturnal ecological continuum of the State of Geneva, Switzerland, based on high-resolution nighttime imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment
Volume 16 Issue Pages 100268
Keywords Remote Sensing; Ecology; Switzerland; Europe; orthophotography; viewshed analysis
Abstract The increase of artificial light in recent decades has led to a general awareness of the harmful consequences of light pollution on biodiversity. The artificial light is however rarely taken into account in the principles of developing ecological networks. There is currently no standardized method for integrating this darkness factor into ecological network modeling. We propose a methodology for the identification of the nocturnal continuum through an approach based on the automated extraction of light sources from nocturnal orthophotography and the modeling of their visibility within a territory. The model is applied to the transboundary region of the Geneva basin in Switzerland and allows for the integration of the darkness factor into the existing ecological networks. Although the analysis does not consider metric lighting data, a viewshed analysis allows for a first large-scale mapping of the nighttime continuum and highlights the areas benefiting from very low light pollution.
Address University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Route de Presinge 150, 1254, Jussy, Switzerland; jessica.ranzoni(at)hesge.ch
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (down) 2352-9385 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2687
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Author Dautovich, N.D.; Schreiber, D.R.; Imel, J.L.; Tighe, C.A.; Shoji, K.D.; Cyrus, J.; Bryant, N.; Lisech, A.; O'Brien, C.; Dzierzewski, J.M.
Title A systematic review of the amount and timing of light in association with objective and subjective sleep outcomes in community-dwelling adults Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sleep Health Abbreviated Journal Sleep Health
Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 31–48
Keywords Human Health; Review; light timing; Sleep
Abstract Light is considered the dominant environmental cue, or zeitgeber, influencing the sleep-wake cycle. Despite recognizing the importance of light for our well-being, less is known about the specific conditions under which light is optimally associated with better sleep. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to examine the association between the amount and timing of light exposure in relation to sleep outcomes in healthy, community-dwelling adults. A systematic search was conducted of four databases from database inception to June 2016. In total, 45 studies met the review eligibility criteria with generally high study quality excepting for the specification of eligibility criteria and the justification of sample size. The majority of studies involved experimental manipulation of light (n = 32) vs observational designs (n = 13). Broad trends emerged suggesting that (1) bright light (>1000 lux) has positive implications for objectively assessed sleep outcomes compared to dim (<100 lux) and moderate light (100-1000 lux) and (2) bright light (>1000 lux) has positive implications for subjectively assessed sleep outcomes compared to moderate light (100-1000 lux). Effects due to the amount of light are moderated by the timing of light exposure such that, for objectively assessed sleep outcomes, brighter morning and evening light exposure are consistent with a shift in the timing of the sleep period to earlier and later in the day, respectively. For subjectively assessed sleep outcomes, brighter light delivered in the morning was associated with self-reported sleep improvements and brighter evening light exposure was associated with worse self-reported sleep.
Address Psychology Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, 800 W Franklin St, Room 203, PO Box 842018, Richmond, VA 23284-2018 USA; ndautovich(at)vcu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher National Sleep Foundation Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (down) 2352-7218 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2050
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Author Kalousová, L.; Xiao, B.; Burgard, S.A.
Title Material hardship and sleep: results from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sleep Health Abbreviated Journal Sleep Health
Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 113-127
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing; Sleep; sleep inequality; Society; sleep outcomes
Abstract Objective

Sleep is unequally distributed in the US population. People with low socioeconomic status report worse quality and shorter sleep than people with high socioeconomic status. Past research hypothesized that a potential reason for this link could be exposure to material hardship. This study examines the associations between several material hardships and sleep outcomes.

Methods

We use population-representative cross-sectional data (n = 730) from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study collected in 2013 and examine the associations between 6 indicators of material hardship (employment instability, financial problems, housing instability, food insecurity, forgone medical care, and the total number of material hardships reported) and 3 sleep outcomes (short sleep, sleep problems, and nonrestorative sleep). We build multivariable logistic regression models controlling for respondents’ characteristics and light pollution near their residence.

Results

In unadjusted models, all material hardships were associated with negative sleep outcomes. In adjusted models, forgone medical care was a statistically significant predictor of nonrestorative sleep (average marginal effect 0.16), as was employment instability (average marginal effect 0.12). The probability of sleep problems and nonrestorative sleep increased with a greater number of hardships overall (average marginal effects of .02 and .05, respectively). We found marginally statistically significant positive associations between food insecurity and short sleep and sleep problems.

Conclusions

This study finds that, except when considering foregone medical care, employment instability, and total count of material hardships, associations between material hardship and negative sleep outcomes are not statistically significant after adjusting for a robust set of sociodemographic and health characteristics.
Address Nuffield College, 1 New Rd, Oxford, OX1 1NF, United Kingdom; lucie.kalousova(at)nuffield.ox.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (down) 2352-7218 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2180
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Author Straka, T.M.; Greif, S.; Schultz, S.; Goerlitz, H.R.; Voigt, C.C.
Title The effect of cave illumination on bats Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Global Ecology and Conservation
Volume 21 Issue Pages e00808
Keywords Animals; Lighting
Abstract Artificial light at night has large impacts on nocturnal wildlife such as bats, yet its effect varies with wavelength of light, context, and across species involved. Here, we studied in two experiments how wild bats of cave-roosting species (Rhinolophus mehelyi, R. euryale, Myotis capaccinii and Miniopterus schreibersii) respond to LED lights of different colours. In dual choice experiments, we measured the acoustic activity of bats in response to neutral-white, red or amber LED at a cave entrance and in a flight room – mimicking a cave interior. In the flight room, M. capaccinii and M. schreibersii preferred red to white light, but showed no preference for red over amber, or amber over white light. In the cave entrance experiment, all light colours reduced the activity of all emerging species, yet red LED had the least negative effect. Rhinolophus species reacted most strongly, matching their refusal to fly at all under any light treatment in the flight room. We conclude that the placement and light colour of LED light should be considered carefully in lighting concepts for caves both in the interior and at the entrance. In a cave interior, red LED light could be chosen – if needed at all – for careful temporary illumination of areas, yet areas important for bats should be avoided based on the precautionary principle. At cave entrances, the high sensitivity of most bat species, particularly of Rhinolophus spp., towards light sources almost irrespective of colour, calls for utmost caution when illuminating cave entrances.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (down) 2351-9894 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2700
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