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Author Cao, C.; Shao, X.; Uprety, S.
Title Detecting Light Outages After Severe Storms Using the S-NPP/VIIRS Day/Night Band Radiances Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters Abbreviated Journal IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett.
Volume 10 Issue (down) 6 Pages 1582-1586
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Power outages after a major storm affect the lives of millions of people and cause massive light outages. The launch of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) significantly enhances our capability to monitor and detect light outages with the well-calibrated day/night band (DNB) and to use light loss signatures as indication of regional power outages. This study explores the use of the DNB in quantifying light outages due to the derecho storm in the Washington DC metropolitan area in June 2012 and Hurricane Sandy at the end of October 2012 on the East Coast of U.S. The results show that the DNB data are very useful in detecting power outages by quantifying light loss, but it also has some challenges due to clouds, lunar illumination, and straylight effect. Comparison of light outage and recovery trend determined from DNB data with power company survey shows reasonable agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of DNB in independently verifying and complementing the statistics from power companies.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1545-598X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2040
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Author Eccard, J.A.; Scheffler, I.; Franke, S.; Hoffmann, J.; Leather, S.; Stewart, A.
Title Off-grid: solar powered LED illumination impacts epigeal arthropods Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Insect Conservation and Diversity Abbreviated Journal Insect Conserv Divers
Volume 11 Issue (down) 6 Pages 600-607
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Advances in LED technology combined with solar, storable energy bring light to places remote from electricity grids. Worldwide more than 1.3 billion of people are living off‐grid, often in developing regions of high insect biodiversity. In developed countries, dark refuges for wildlife are threatened by ornamental garden lights. Solar powered LEDs (SPLEDs) are cheaply available, dim, and often used to illuminate foot paths, but little is known on their effects on ground living (epigeal) arthropods.

We used off‐the‐shelf garden lamps with a single ‘white’ LED (colour temperature 7250 K) to experimentally investigate effects on attraction and nocturnal activity of ground beetles (Carabidae).

We found two disparate and species‐specific effects of SPLEDs. (i) Some nocturnal, phototactic species were not reducing activity under illumination and were strongly attracted to lamps (>20‐fold increase in captures compared to dark controls). Such species aggregate in lit areas and SPLEDs may become ecological traps, while the species is drawn from nearby, unlit assemblages. (ii) Other nocturnal species were reducing mobility and activity under illumination without being attracted to light, which may cause fitness reduction in lit areas.

Both reactions offer mechanistic explanations on how outdoor illumination can change population densities of specific predatory arthropods, which may have cascading effects on epigeal arthropod assemblages. The technology may thus increase the area of artificial light at night (ALAN) impacting insect biodiversity.

Measures are needed to mitigate effects, such as adjustment of light colour temperature and automated switch‐offs.
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1752458X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2085
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O.
Title Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 55 Issue (down) 6 Pages 2698-2706
Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants
Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086
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Author Behera, S.K.; Mohanta, R.
Title Total An Investigation into Light Pollution as a Limiting factor for shift of Mass nesting ground at Rushikulya rookery Ganjam Odishas Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication American Journal of Marine Research and Reviews Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue (down) 6 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Illumination due to artificial lights on nesting beaches and from nearby place to nesting beaches is detrimental to sea turtles because it alters critical nocturnal behaviors specifically, their choice of nesting sites and their return path to the sea after nesting. Illuminations perplex the hatchlings to find sea after emerging. Numerous studies conducted in other countries have demonstrated that artificial lights negatively impact on turtles, both female adults as they come to and go from their home beach to lay eggs, and to turtle hatchlings as they seek out the way to the open ocean. In this study we correlated the mass nesting intensity of 5years (2012 to 2018) at Rushikulya mass nesting site to the illumination zone. Illumination due to light conditions on nesting beaches are complex, and measuring light pollution in a way that effectively captures the impacts to sea turtles is difficult. But increase in intensity of illumination on selective mass nesting beaches showed gradual reduction in intensity of preferred nesting site during the mass nesting event. A gradual shift of nesting preference was also observed more toward darker zone.
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2104
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Author Kerstel, E.; Gardelein, A.; Barthelemy, M.; Fink, M.; Joshi, S.K.; Ursin, R.
Title Nanobob: a CubeSat mission concept for quantum communication experiments in an uplink configuration Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication European physical journal quantum technology Abbreviated Journal EPJ Quantum Technol.
Volume 5 Issue (down) 6 Pages 1-30
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract We present a ground-to-space quantum key distribution (QKD) mission concept and the accompanying feasibility study for the development of the associated low earth orbit nanosatellite payload. The quantum information is carried by single photons with the binary codes represented by polarization states of the photons. Distribution of entangled photons between the ground and the satellite can be used to certify the quantum nature of the link: a guarantee that no eavesdropping can take place. By placing the entangled photon source on the ground, the space segments contains “only” the less complex detection system, enabling its implementation in a compact enclosure, compatible with the 12U CubeSat standard (∼12 dm3). This reduces the overall cost of the project, making it an ideal choice as a pathfinder for future European quantum communication satellite missions. The space segment is also more versatile than one that contains the source since it is compatible with a multiple of QKD protocols (not restricted to entangled photon schemes) and can be used in quantum physics experiments, such as the investigation of entanglement decoherence. Other possible experiments include atmospheric transmission/turbulence characterization, dark area mapping, fine pointing and tracking, and accurate clock synchronization; all crucial for future global scale quantum communication efforts.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2196-0763 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2115
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