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Author Haddock, J., K., Threlfall, C. G., Law, B., & Hochuli, D. F.
Title Responses of insectivorous bats and nocturnal insects to local changes in street light technology Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 44 Issue (down) 6 Pages 1052-1064
Keywords Animals; Mammals; Bats; Chalinolobus gouldii; Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis; Australia; LED; lighting; street lighting
Abstract Artificial light at night is a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for biodiversity. Many fast‐flying insectivorous bat species feed on insects that are attracted to light‐emitting ultraviolet radiation (10–400 nm). Several countries are currently focused on replacing mercury vapour lamps, which emit ultraviolet light, with more cost‐efficient light‐emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit less ultraviolet radiation. This reduction in ultraviolet light may cause declines in insect densities in cities, predatory fast‐flying bats, and some edge‐foraging and slow‐flying bats. Capitalising on a scheme to update streetlights from high ultraviolet mercury vapour to low ultraviolet LED in Sydney, Australia, we measured the activity of individual bat species, the activity of different functional groups and the bat and insect communities, before and after the change in technology. We also surveyed sites with already LED lights, sites with mercury vapour lights and unlit bushland remnants. Species adapted to foraging in cluttered vegetation, and some edge‐space foraging species, were more active in unlit bushland sites than in all lit sites and decreased in activity at lit sites after the change to LED lights. The change to LED streetlights caused a decrease in the fast‐flying Chalinolobus gouldii but not Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis, the latter being more influenced by seasonal and environmental variables. Insect biomass was not affected by changing light types, but instead was negatively correlated with the moon's percentage illuminance. Changing streetlights to LEDs could result in a decline in some insectivorous bats in cities. This study confirms that unlit urban bushland remnants are important refuges for high bat diversity, particularly for more clutter‐adapted species and some edge‐space foraging species. Preventing light penetration into unlit bushland patches and corridors remains essential to protect the urban bat community.
Address School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Heydon‐Laurence Building, Science Road, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 Australia; joanna.haddock(at)sydney.edu.au
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2636
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Author Oda, T., Bun, R., Kinakh, V. et al.
Title Errors and uncertainties in a gridded carbon dioxide emissions inventory Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change Abbreviated Journal
Volume 24 Issue (down) 6 Pages 1007-1050
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Emission inventories (EIs) are the fundamental tool to monitor compliance with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and emission reduction commitments. Inventory accounting guidelines provide the best practices to help EI compilers across different countries and regions make comparable, national emission estimates regardless of differences in data availability. However, there are a variety of sources of error and uncertainty that originate beyond what the inventory guidelines can define. Spatially explicit EIs, which are a key product for atmospheric modeling applications, are often developed for research purposes and there are no specific guidelines to achieve spatial emission estimates. The errors and uncertainties associated with the spatial estimates are unique to the approaches employed and are often difficult to assess. This study compares the global, high-resolution (1 km), fossil fuel, carbon dioxide (CO2), gridded EI Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC) with the multi-resolution, spatially explicit bottom-up EI geoinformation technologies, spatio-temporal approaches, and full carbon account for improving the accuracy of GHG inventories (GESAPU) over the domain of Poland. By taking full advantage of the data granularity that bottom-up EI offers, this study characterized the potential biases in spatial disaggregation by emission sector (point and non-point emissions) across different scales (national, subnational/regional, and urban policy-relevant scales) and identified the root causes. While two EIs are in agreement in total and sectoral emissions (2.2% for the total emissions), the emission spatial patterns showed large differences (10~100% relative differences at 1 km) especially at the urban-rural transitioning areas (90–100%). We however found that the agreement of emissions over urban areas is surprisingly good compared with the estimates previously reported for US cities. This paper also discusses the use of spatially explicit EIs for climate mitigation applications beyond the common use in atmospheric modeling. We conclude with a discussion of current and future challenges of EIs in support of successful implementation of GHG emission monitoring and mitigation activity under the Paris Climate Agreement from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21). We highlight the importance of capacity building for EI development and coordinated research efforts of EI, atmospheric observations, and modeling to overcome the challenges.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2644
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Author Jechow, A.; Hölker, F.
Title How dark is a river? Artificial light at night in aquatic systems and the need for comprehensive night‐time light measurements Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water Abbreviated Journal WIREs Water
Volume 6 Issue (down) 6 Pages e1388
Keywords Ecology; Skyglow; Review
Abstract Freshwater ecosystems are hotspots of biodiversity. They are of major importance for humans because they provide vital ecosystem services. However, as humans tend to settle near freshwaters and coastal areas, these ecosystems are also over‐proportionally affected by anthropogenic stressors. Artificial light at night can occur as a form of environmental pollution, light pollution. Light pollution affects large areas on a worldwide scale, is growing exponentially in radiance and extent and can have diverse negative effects on flora, fauna and on human health. While the majority of ecological studies on artificial light at night covered terrestrial systems, the studies on aquatic light pollution have unraveled impact on aquatic organisms, ecosystem functions as well as land‐water‐interactions. Although monitoring of light pollution is routinely performed from space and supported by ground‐based measurements, the extent and the amount of artificial light at night affecting water bodies is still largely unknown. This information, however, is essential for the design of future laboratory and field experiments, to guide light planners and to give recommendations for light pollution regulations. We analyze this knowledge gap by reviewing night‐time light measurement techniques and discuss their current obstacles in the context of water bodies. We also provide an overview of light pollution studies in the aquatic context. Finally, we give recommendations on how comprehensive night‐time light measurements in aquatic systems, specifically in freshwater systems, should be designed in the future.
Address Ecohydrology, Leibniz‐Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany; andreas.jechow(at)gmx.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 2049-1948 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2688
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Author Stock, D.; Schernhammer, E.
Title Does night work affect age at which menopause occurs? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity Abbreviated Journal Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
Volume 26 Issue (down) 6 Pages 306–312
Keywords Human Health; Review; shift work; Menopause; women
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To delineate the current state of evidence on the impact of night shift work on age at natural menopause. RECENT FINDINGS: The only direct evidence is from a single observational study, which indicates that women who work night shifts are at moderately higher risk for earlier menopause and that this risk is more pronounced among younger women. Underlying biological mechanisms have yet to be sufficiently substantiated. A long-held line of inquiry, most strongly propagated by the observed link between night shift work and female breast cancer, is the 'Light at Night' hypothesis, which suggests melatonin-mediated circadian disruption as a potential regulator of reproductive signaling in women. Supporting evidence is found from observations of changes in endogenous melatonin production among night working women or in response to light exposure, and corresponding changes in endogenous ovarian hormone levels and modulated menstrual patterns, among other indications of altered central ovulation-governing processes. Susceptibility to night shift work may be modified by chronotype. SUMMARY: This review summarizes the literature related to night work and ovulatory regulation in humans, prioritizing population-based evidence to provide motivation for the study of circadian disruption and night shift work as a regulator of menopausal timing.
Address Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
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ISSN 1752-296X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:31644468 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2708
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Author Żagan, W.
Title Opinion: Obtrusive light and floodlighting Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 47 Issue (down) 6 Pages 640-640
Keywords Commentary
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2713
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