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Author Hänel, A.; Posch, T.; Ribas, S.J.; Aubé, M.; Duriscoe, D.; Jechow, A.; Kollath, Z.; Lolkema, D.E.; Moore, C.; Schmidt, N.; Spoelstra, H.; Wuchterl, G.; Kyba, C.C.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Measuring night sky brightness: methods and challenges Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 205 Issue (up) Pages 278-290  
  Keywords skyglow  
  Abstract Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earthâ??s atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations. The different quantities that can and should be derived when measuring the night sky brightness are discussed, as well as the procedures that have been and still need to be defined in this context. We conclude that in many situations, calibrated consumer digital cameras with fisheye lenses provide the best relation between ease-of-use and wealth of obtainable information on the night sky. While they do not obtain full spectral information, they are able to sample the complete sky in a period of minutes, with colour information in three bands. This is important, as given the current global changes in lamp spectra, changes in sky radiance observed only with single band devices may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding long term changes in sky brightness. The acquisition of all-sky information is desirable, as zenith-only information does not provide an adequate characterization of a site. Nevertheless, zenith-only single-band one-channel devices such as the â??Sky Quality Meterâ? continue to be a viable option for long-term studies of night sky brightness and for studies conducted from a moving platform. Accurate interpretation of such data requires some understanding of the colour composition of the sky light. We recommend supplementing long-term time series derived with such devices with periodic all-sky sampling by a calibrated camera system and calibrated luxmeters or luminance meters.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1731  
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Author Nasar, J.L.; Bokharaei, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lighting modes and their effects on impressions of public squares Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Environmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Psychology  
  Volume 49 Issue (up) Pages 96-105  
  Keywords Psychology  
  Abstract Lighting may affect impressions of public places after dark. Prospect-refuge theory suggests that people would favor uniform, bright, or overhead lighting to the alternatives. The study had 363 (161 men, 202 women) adult participants. An on-line survey displayed color slides of two simulated squares, each repeated for all mixes of lighting modes (order randomized across participants). One square also varied the peripheral lighting tilt (down or out). For ratings, each participant was assigned at random to use one of twelve items for evaluation, excitement, restfulness, or behavioral intent. Because the scales had high inter-item reliability, we combined them into a composite preference scale. In agreement with P-R theory, uniform, bright, and overhead lighting received the higher scores. The peripheral lighting tilt (down or out) did not affect preference. Lighting designs might do well to offer unobstructed views of information ahead. Research could test on-site experience and different aspects of lighting.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0272-4944 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1612  
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Author Alamús, R.; Bará, S.; Corbera, J.; Escofet, J.; Palà , V.; Pipia, L.; Tardà, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ground-based hyperspectral analysis of the urban nightscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing  
  Volume 124 Issue (up) Pages 16-26  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Airborne hyperspectral cameras provide the basic information to estimate the energy wasted skywards by outdoor lighting systems, as well as to locate and identify their sources. However, a complete characterization of the urban light pollution levels also requires evaluating these effects from the city dwellers standpoint, e.g. the energy waste associated to the excessive illuminance on walls and pavements, light trespass, or the luminance distributions causing potential glare, to mention but a few. On the other hand, the spectral irradiance at the entrance of the human eye is the primary input to evaluate the possible health effects associated with the exposure to artificial light at night, according to the more recent models available in the literature. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of using a hyperspectral imager (routinely used in airborne campaigns) to measure the ground-level spectral radiance of the urban nightscape and to retrieve several magnitudes of interest for light pollution studies. We also present the preliminary results from a field campaign carried out in the downtown of Barcelona.  
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  ISSN 0924-2716 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1613  
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Author Wang, H.-B.; Whittaker, D.S.; Truong, D.; Mulji, A.K.; Ghiani, C.A.; Loh, D.H.; Colwell, C.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Blue light therapy improves circadian dysfunction as well as motor symptoms in two mouse models of Huntington's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Abbreviated Journal Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms  
  Volume 2 Issue (up) Pages 39-52  
  Keywords animals; Human Health  
  Abstract Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit movement disorders, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive impairments as the disease progresses. Abnormal sleep/wake cycles are common among HD patients with reports of delayed sleep onset, fatigue during the day, and a delayed pattern of melatonin secretion all of which suggest circadian dysfunction. Mouse models of HD confirm disrupted circadian rhythms with pathophysiology found in the central circadian clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus). Importantly, circadian dysfunction manifests early in disease, even before the classic motor symptoms, in both patients and mouse models. Therefore, we hypothesize that the circadian dysfunction may interact with the disease pathology and exacerbate the HD symptoms. If correct, early intervention may benefit patients and delay disease progression. One test of this hypothesis is to determine whether light therapy designed to strengthen this intrinsic timing system can delay the disease progression in mouse models. Therefore, we determined the impact of blue wavelength-enriched light on two HD models: the BACHD and Q175 mice. Both models received 6 hours of blue-light at the beginning of their daily light cycle for 3 months. After treatment, both genotypes showed improvements in their locomotor activity rhythm without significant change to their sleep behavior. Critically, treated mice of both lines exhibited improved motor performance compared to untreated controls. Focusing on the Q175 genotype, we sought to determine whether the treatment altered signaling pathways in brain regions known to be impacted by HD using NanoString gene expression assays. We found that the expression of several HD relevant markers was altered in the striatum and cortex of the treated mice. Our study demonstrates that strengthening the circadian system can delay the progression of HD in pre-clinical models. This work suggests that lighting conditions should be considered when managing treatment of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2451-9944 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1626  
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Author Rahman, S.A.; St Hilaire, M.A.; Lockley, S.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 177 Issue (up) Pages 221-229  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract We compared the effects of bedroom-intensity light from a standard fluorescent and a blue- (i.e., short-wavelength) depleted LED source on melatonin suppression, alertness, and sleep. Sixteen healthy participants (8 females) completed a 4-day inpatient study. Participants were exposed to blue-depleted circadian-sensitive (C-LED) light and a standard fluorescent light (FL, 4100K) of equal illuminance (50lx) for 8h prior to a fixed bedtime on two separate days in a within-subject, randomized, cross-over design. Each light exposure day was preceded by a dim light (<3lx) control at the same time 24h earlier. Compared to the FL condition, control-adjusted melatonin suppression was significantly reduced. Although subjective sleepiness was not different between the two light conditions, auditory reaction times were significantly slower under C-LED conditions compared to FL 30min prior to bedtime. EEG-based correlates of alertness corroborated the reduced alertness under C-LED conditions as shown by significantly increased EEG spectral power in the delta-theta (0.5-8.0Hz) bands under C-LED as compared to FL exposure. There was no significant difference in total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%), and slow-wave activity (SWA) between the two conditions. Unlike melatonin suppression and alertness, a significant order effect was observed on all three sleep variables, however. Individuals who received C-LED first and then FL had increased TST, SE% and SWA averaged across both nights compared to individuals who received FL first and then C-LED. These data show that the spectral characteristics of light can be fine-tuned to attenuate non-visual responses to light in humans.  
  Address Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28472667 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1659  
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