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Author Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Diez, B.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.; Gallego, J.; Fernandez, A.; Nievas, M.
Title Testing sky brightness models against radial dependency: a dense two dimensional survey around the city of Madrid, Spain Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT
Volume 181 Issue (up) Pages 52-66
Keywords Skyglow; measurements; light pollution; artificial light at night; modeling; Madrid; Spain
Abstract We present a study of the night sky brightness around the extended metropolitan area of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. The map is the first to cover the spatial distribution of the sky brightness in the center of the Iberian peninsula. These surveys are neccessary to test the light pollution models that predict night sky brightness as a function of the location and brightness of the sources of light pollution and the scattering of light in the atmosphere. We describe the data-retrieval methodology, which includes an automated procedure to measure from a moving vehicle in order to speed up the data collection, providing a denser and wider survey than previous works with similar time frames. We compare the night sky brightness map to the nocturnal radiance measured from space by the DMSP satellite. We find that i) a single source model is not enough to explain the radial evolution of the night sky brightness, despite the predominance of Madrid in size and population, and ii) that the orography of the region should be taken into account when deriving geo-specific models from general first-principles models. We show the tight relationship between these two luminance measures. This finding sets up an alternative roadmap to extended studies over the globe that will not require the local deployment of photometers or trained personnel.
Address Dept. Astrof´ısica y CC. de la Atm´osfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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ISSN ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1323
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Author Rodríguez Martín, A.; Chiaradia, A.; Wasiak, P.; Renwick, L.; Dann, P.
Title Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 0748730415626010 Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Animals; birds; penguins; attendance; little penguin; Eudyptula minor; Phillip Island; Australia; photobiology; seabirds
Abstract Visible light on Earth largely comes from the sun, including light reflected from the moon. Predation risk is strongly determined by light conditions, and some animals are nocturnal to reduce predation. Artificial lights and its consequent light pollution may disrupt this natural behavior. Here, we used 13 years of attendance data to study the effects of sun, moon, and artificial light on the attendance pattern of a nocturnal seabird, the little penguin Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. The little penguin is the smallest and the only penguin species whose activity on land is strictly nocturnal. Automated monitoring systems recorded individually marked penguins every time they arrived (after sunset) at or departed (before sunrise) from 2 colonies under different lighting conditions: natural night skylight and artificial lights (around 3 lux) used to enhance penguin viewing for ecotourism around sunset. Sunlight had a strong effect on attendance as penguins arrived on average around 81 min after sunset and departed around 92 min before sunrise. The effect of moonlight was also strong, varying according to moon phase. Fewer penguins came ashore during full moon nights. Moon phase effect was stronger on departure than arrival times. Thus, during nights between full moon and last quarter, arrival times (after sunset) were delayed, even though moonlight levels were low, while departure times (before sunrise) were earlier, coinciding with high moonlight levels. Cyclic patterns of moon effect were slightly out of phase but significantly between 2 colonies, which could be due to site-specific differences or presence/absence of artificial lights. Moonlight could be overridden by artificial light at our artificially lit colony, but the similar amplitude of attendance patterns between colonies suggests that artificial light did not mask the moonlight effect. Further research is indeed necessary to understand how seabirds respond to the increasing artificial night light levels.
Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain; airamrguez(at)ebd.csic.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1345
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.; Zamorano, J.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.
Title The spectral amplification effect of clouds to the night sky radiance in Madrid Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue (up) Pages 11-23
Keywords Skyglow; Madrid; Spain; Europe; artificial light at night; light pollution; clouds; amplification
Abstract Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) may have various environmental impacts ranging from compromising the visibility of astronomical objects to the perturbation of circadian cycles in animals and humans. In the past much research has been carried out to study the impact of ALAN on the radiance of the night sky during clear sky conditions. This was mainly justified by the need for a better understanding of the behavior of ALAN propagation into the environment in order to protect world-class astronomical facilities. More recently, alongside to the threat to the natural starry sky, many issues have emerged from the biological science community. It has been shown that, nearby or inside cities, the presence of cloud cover generally acts as an amplifier for artificial sky radiance while clouds behave as attenuators for remote observers. In this paper we show the spectral behavior of the zenith sky radiance amplification factor exerted by clouds inside a city. We compare in-situ measurements made with the spectrometer SAND-4 with a numerical model applied to the specific geographical context of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in Spain.
Address Cégep de Sherbrooke, 475 rue du Cégep, Sherbrooke, Canada J1E 4K1; aubema(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1351
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Author Jechow, A.; Hölker, F.; Kolláth, Z.; Gessner, M.O.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Evaluating the summer night sky brightness at a research field site on Lake Stechlin in northeastern Germany Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue (up) Pages 24-32
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract We report on luminance measurements of the summer night sky at a field site on a freshwater lake in northeastern Germany (Lake Stechlin) to evaluate the amount of artificial skyglow from nearby and distant towns in the context of a planned study on light pollution. The site is located about 70 km north of Berlin in a rural area possibly belonging to one of the darkest regions in Germany. Continuous monitoring of the zenith sky luminance between June and September 2015 was conducted utilizing a Sky Quality Meter. With this device, typical values for clear nights in the range of 21.5–21.7 magSQM/arcsec2 were measured, which is on the order of the natural sky brightness during starry nights. On overcast nights, values down to 22.84 magSQM/arcsec2 were obtained, which is about one third as bright as on clear nights. The luminance measured on clear nights as well as the darkening with the presence of clouds indicate that there is very little influence of artificial skyglow on the zenith sky brightness at this location. Furthermore, fish-eye lens sky imaging luminance photometry was performed with a digital single-lens reflex camera on a clear night in the absence of moonlight. The photographs unravel several distant towns as possible sources of light pollution on the horizon. However, the low level of artificial skyglow makes the field site at Lake Stechlin an excellent location to study the effects of skyglow on a lake ecosystem in a controlled fashion.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
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ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1354
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Author Touitou, Y.; Reinberg, A.; Touitou, D.
Title Association between light at night, melatonin secretion, sleep deprivation, and the internal clock: Health impacts and mechanisms of circadian disruption Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Life Sciences Abbreviated Journal Life Sci
Volume 173 Issue (up) Pages 94-106
Keywords Review; Human Health
Abstract Exposure to Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system, which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, 75% of the total workforce is estimated to have been involved in shift work and night work. Epidemiologic studies, mainly of nurses, have revealed an association between sustained night work and a 50-100% higher incidence of breast cancer. The potential and multifactorial mechanisms of the effects include the suppression of melatonin secretion by ALAN, sleep deprivation, and circadian disruption. Shift and/or night work generally decreases the time spent sleeping, and it disrupts the circadian time structure. In the long run, this desynchronization is detrimental to health, as underscored by a large number of epidemiological studies that have uncovered elevated rates of several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular risks, obesity, mood disorders and age-related macular degeneration. It amounts to a public health issue in the light of the very substantial number of individuals involved. The IARC has classified shift work in group 2A of “probable carcinogens to humans” since “they involve a circadian disorganization”. Countermeasures to the effects of ALAN, such as melatonin, bright light, or psychotropic drugs, have been proposed as a means to combat circadian clock disruption and improve adaptation to shift and night work. We review the evidence for the ALAN impacts on health. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of an in-depth mechanistic understanding to combat the detrimental properties of exposure to ALAN and develop strategies of prevention.
Address UHSA – Groupe Hospitalier Paul Guiraud, 54, avenue de la Republique, 94806 Villejuif, France
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0024-3205 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28214594 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2455
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