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Author Henneken, J.; Jones, T.M.
Title Pheromones-based sexual selection in a rapidly changing world Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Current Opinion in Insect Science Abbreviated Journal Current Opinion in Insect Science
Volume 24 Issue (up) Pages 84-88
Keywords Animals
Abstract Insects utilise chemical cues for a range of different purposes and the complexity and degree of specificity of these signals is arguably unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Chemical signals are particularly important for insect reproduction and the selective pressures driving their evolution and maintenance have been the subject of previous reviews. However, the world in which chemical cues evolved and are maintained is changing at an unprecedented rate. How (or indeed whether) chemical signals used in sexual selection will respond is largely unknown. Here, we explore how recent increases in urbanisation and associated anthropogenic impacts may affect how chemical signals are produced and perceived. We focus on four anthropomorphic influences which have the potential to interact with pheromone-mediated sexual selection processes; climatic temperature shifts, exposure to chemical pollutants, the presence of artificial light at night and nutrient availability. Our aim is to provide a broad overview of key areas where the rapidly changing environment of the future might specifically affect pheromones utilised in sexual selection.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2214-5745 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1736
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Author Boswell, W.T.; Boswell, M.; Walter, D.J.; Navarro, K.L.; Chang, J.; Lu, Y.; Savage, M.G.; Shen, J.; Walter, R.B.
Title Exposure to 4100K fluorescent light elicits sex specific transcriptional responses in Xiphophorus maculatus skin Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol
Volume 208 Issue (up) Pages 96-104
Keywords Animals
Abstract It has been reported that exposure to artificial light may affect oxygen intake, heart rate, absorption of vitamins and minerals, and behavioral responses in humans. We have reported specific gene expression responses in the skin of Xiphophorus fish after exposure to ultraviolet light (UV), as well as, both broad spectrum and narrow waveband visible light. In regard to fluorescent light (FL), we have shown that male X. maculatus exposed to 4100K FL (i.e. “cool white”) rapidly suppress transcription of many genes involved with DNA replication and repair, chromosomal segregation, and cell cycle progression in skin. We have also detailed sex specific transcriptional responses of Xiphophorus skin after exposure to UVB. However, investigation of gender differences in global gene expression response after exposure to 4100K FL has not been reported, despite common use of this FL source for residential, commercial, and animal facility illumination. Here, we compare RNASeq results analyzed to assess changes in the global transcription profiles of female and male X. maculatus skin in response to 4100K FL exposure. Our results suggest 4100K FL exposure incites a sex-biased genetic response including up-modulation of inflammation in females and down modulation of DNA repair/replication in males. In addition, we identify clusters of genes that become oppositely modulated in males and females after FL exposure that are principally involved in cell death and cell proliferation.
Address Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Xiphophorus Genetic Stock Center, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA. Electronic address: RW12@txstate.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1532-0456 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28965926 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1739
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Author Gonzalez, T.J.; Lu, Y.; Boswell, M.; Boswell, W.; Medrano, G.; Walter, S.; Ellis, S.; Savage, M.; Varga, Z.M.; Lawrence, C.; Sanders, G.; Walter, R.B.
Title Fluorescent light exposure incites acute and prolonged immune responses in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skin Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol
Volume 208 Issue (up) Pages 87-95
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light produces an emission spectrum that is considerably different than the solar spectrum. Artificial light has been shown to affect various behavior and physiological processes in vertebrates. However, there exists a paucity of data regarding the molecular genetic effects of artificial light exposure. Previous studies showed that one of the commonly used fluorescent light source (FL; 4100K or “cool white”) can affect signaling pathways related to maintenance of circadian rhythm, cell cycle progression, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair/recombination in the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus. These observations raise questions concerning the kinetics of the FL induced gene expression response, and which biological functions become modulated at various times after light exposure. To address these questions, we exposed zebrafish to 4100K FL and utilized RNASeq to assess gene expression changes in skin at various times (1 to 12h) after FL exposure. We found 4100K FL incites a robust early (1-2h) transcriptional response, followed by a more protracted late response (i.e., 4-12h). The early transcriptional response involves genes associated with cell migration/infiltration and cell proliferation as part of an overall increase in immune function and inflammation. The protracted late transcriptional response occurs within gene sets predicted to maintain and perpetuate the inflammatory response, as well as suppression of lipid, xenobiotic, and melatonin metabolism.
Address Xiphophorus Genetic Stock Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 419 Centennial Hall, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA. Electronic address: RWalter@txstate.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1532-0456 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28965927 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1740
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Author Albreiki, Mohammed S.
Title The effects of light at night and/or melatonin on hormones, metabo- lites, appetite control, vascular function, and behavioural responses. Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication University of Surrey Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Light at night (LAN) is a major factor in disruption of SCN function, including melatonin suppression. Melatonin has been linked to a variety of biological processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, vascular parameters, appetite, and behaviour. However, few human studies have investigated the effect of LAN and suppressed melatonin prior to and after an evening meal. The current thesis aims to investigate the impact of light at night and/or mela- tonin on hormones, metabolites, appetite, vascular function, and behaviour prior to and after an evening test meal in healthy participants. The first study investigated the effect of dim or bright light conditions on hor- mones, metabolites, appetite, vascular function and behavioural responses. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were reduced, lipid profiles altered and salivary melatonin suppressed under bright light compared to dim light conditions. Subjec- tive mood was improved and appetite scores increased in bright light. No differences were seen in vascular parameters. Although clear differences were apparent it could not be determined whether the effects were due to the light at night, the absence of melatonin or a combination of the two. The second study involved three conditions with the administration of exogenous melatonin 90 mins before the evening test meal under bright and dim light conditions compared to bright light alone with the consequent melatonin suppression. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were reduced and lipid profile altered in bright light when melatonin was suppressed compared to the two conditions with exogenous melatonin. Mood was improved and appetite increased with lower leptin levels and elevated wrist temperature with bright light and suppressed melatonin. Statistical analysis showed that the major effects were due to melatonin. These studies demonstrate a possible role for melatonin in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism when eating late at night which may have implications for shift-workers.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1747
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Author Kocifaj, M.
Title Towards a Comprehensive City Emission Function (CCEF) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT
Volume 205 Issue (up) Pages 253-266
Keywords Lighting; Skyglow
Abstract The comprehensive city emission function (CCEF) is developed for a heterogeneous light-emitting or blocking urban environments, embracing any combination of input parameters that characterize linear dimensions in the system (size and distances between buildings or luminaires), properties of light-emitting elements (such as luminous building façades and street lighting), ground reflectance and total uplight-fraction, all of these defined for an arbitrarily sized 2D area. The analytical formula obtained is not restricted to a single model class as it can capture any specific light-emission feature for wide range of cities. The CCEF method is numerically fast in contrast to what can be expected of other probabilistic approaches that rely on repeated random sampling. Hence the present solution has great potential in light-pollution modeling and can be included in larger numerical models. Our theoretical findings promise great progress in light-pollution modeling as this is the first time an analytical solution to city emission function (CEF) has been developed that depends on statistical mean size and height of city buildings, inter-building separation, prevailing heights of light fixtures, lighting density, and other factors such as e.g. luminaire light output and light distribution, including the amount of uplight, and representative city size. The model is validated for sensitivity and specificity pertinent to combinations of input parameters in order to test its behavior under various conditions, including those that can occur in complex urban environments. It is demonstrated that the solution model succeeds in reproducing a light emission peak at some elevated zenith angles and is consistent with reduced rather than enhanced emission in directions nearly parallel to the ground.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ScienceDirect Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1757
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