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Author Hüppop, O.; Ciach, M.; Diehl, R.; Reynolds, D.R.; Stepanian, P.M.; Menz, M.H.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Perspectives and challenges for the use of radar in biological conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Ecography Abbreviated Journal Ecography  
  Volume in press Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Review  
  Abstract Radar is at the forefront for the study of broad‐scale aerial movements of birds, bats and insects and related issues in biological conservation. Radar techniques are especially useful for investigating species which fly at high altitudes, in darkness, or which are too small for applying electronic tags. Here, we present an overview of radar applications in biological conservation and highlight its future possibilities. Depending on the type of radar, information can be gathered on local‐ to continental‐scale movements of airborne organisms and their behaviour. Such data can quantify flyway usage, biomass and nutrient transport (bioflow), population sizes, dynamics and distributions, times and dimensions of movements, areas and times of mass emergence and swarming, habitat use and activity ranges. Radar also captures behavioural responses to anthropogenic disturbances, artificial light and man‐made structures. Weather surveillance and other long‐range radar networks allow spatially broad overviews of important stopover areas, songbird mass roosts and emergences from bat caves. Mobile radars, including repurposed marine radars and commercially dedicated ‘bird radars’, offer the ability to track and monitor the local movements of individuals or groups of flying animals. Harmonic radar techniques have been used for tracking short‐range movements of insects and other small animals of conservation interest. However, a major challenge in aeroecology is determining the taxonomic identity of the targets, which often requires ancillary data obtained from other methods. Radar data have become a global source of information on ecosystem structure, composition, services and function and will play an increasing role in the monitoring and conservation of flying animals and threatened habitats worldwide.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0906-7590 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2204  
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Author Morelli, F.; Benedetti, Y.; Moravec, D.; Jerzak, L.; Tryjanowski, P.; Liang, W.; Møller, A.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Global congruence between cuckoo species richness and biodiversity hotspots Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 232 Issue (up) Pages 28-34  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Considering loss of biodiversity a global threat, cost-effective tools for monitoring spatial distribution of species are relevant for conservation planning. The aims of this study were (a) to compare the global pattern of species richness in Cuculidae with species richness of birds, amphibians and mammals; (b) whether it is spatially congruent with hotspot areas of biodiversity at a global scale; and (c) whether the distribution of night light intensity reflecting human population density is associated with cuckoo species richness. We mapped the global distribution of all cuckoo species, classified as parasitic or non-parasitic species. Species richness was calculated at a fixed spatial scale for: Cuculidae, amphibians, birds and mammals. We applied Generalized Linear Mixed Models in order to explore the associations between species richness of each group of animals, night light intensity and hotspots of biodiversity areas at a global scale.

Worldwide patterns of species richness of parasitic and non-parasitic cuckoos reflected species richness of birds, amphibians and mammals. In addition, and importantly, species richness of cuckoos was spatially congruent with hotspot areas of biodiversity across the world. Finally, night light intensity was slightly positively associated with species richness of parasitic cuckoos. Our findings confirmed that cuckoos constitute an important surrogate of high species richness of different animal taxa at a global scale: It is easy to learn how to identify cuckoos, whereas other species of birds, mammals or amphibians can only be identified by specialists. Our findings also suggest that other parasitic cuckoo species can be used as a biodiversity surrogate in a similar way as the common cuckoo in Eurasia.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2207  
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Author Wallace, H. D. openurl 
  Title Electric Lighting Policy in the Federal Government, 1880-2016 Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords History; Policy; Lighting  
  Abstract Federal policies have targeted electric lighting since the 1880s with varying success. This dissertation examines the history of those policies to understand policy makers’ intent and how their decisions affected the course of events. This qualitative study poses three research questions: How have changes in lamp efficacy affected policy development? How and why have federal policies targeted electric lighting? How have private sector actors adapted public policy to further their own goals? The analysis uses an interdisciplinary approach taking advantage of overlapping methodologies drawn from policy and political sciences, economics, and the history of technology. The concepts of path dependency, context, and actor networks are especially important. Adoption of electric lighting spurred the construction of complex and capital intensive infrastructures now considered indispensable, and lighting always consumed a significant fraction of US electric power. Engineers and scientists created many lamps over the decades, in part to meet a growing demand for energy efficient products. Invention and diffusion of those lamps occurred amid changing standards and definitions of efficiency, shifting relations between network actors, and the development of path dependencies that constrained efforts to affect change. Federal actors typically used lighting policy to conserve resources, promote national security, or to symbolically emphasize the onset of a national crisis. The study shows that after an initial introductory phase, lighting-specific policies developed during two distinct periods. The earlier period consisted of intermittent, crisis-driven federal interventions of mixed success. The later period featured a sustained engagement between public and private sectors wherein incremental adjustments achieved policy goals. A time of transition occurred between the two main periods during which technical, economic, and political contexts changed, while several core social values remained constant. In both early and later periods, private sector actors used policy opportunities to further commercial goals, a practice that public sector actors in the later period used to promote policy acceptance. Recently enacted energy standards removing ordinary incandescent lamps in favor of high efficiency lamps mark the end of the later period. Apparent success means that policy makers should reconsider how they use lighting to achieve future goals.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher University of Maryland Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2210  
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Author Zheng, Q.; Weng, Q.; Wang, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Developing a new cross-sensor calibration model for DMSP-OLS and Suomi-NPP VIIRS night-light imageries Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing  
  Volume 153 Issue (up) Pages 36-47  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation  
  Abstract Night-time light (NTL) data provides a great opportunity to monitor human activities and settlements. Currently, global-scale NTL data are acquired by two satellite sensors, i.e., DMSP-OLS and VIIRS, but the data collected by the satellites are not compatible. To address this issue, we proposed a method for generating long-term and consistent NTL data. First, a logistic model was employed to estimate and smooth the missing DMSP-OLS data. Second, the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram technique was used to statistically examine the presence of seasonality of monthly VIIRS time series. The seasonal effect, noisy and unstable observations in VIIRS were eliminated by the BFAST time-series decomposition algorithm. Then, we proposed a residuals corrected geographically weighted regression model (GWRc) to generate DMSP-like VIIRS data. A consistent NTL time series from 1996 to 2017 was formed by combining the DMSP-OLS and synthetic DMSP-like VIIRS data. Our assessment shows that the proposed GWRc model outperformed existing methods (e.g., power function model), yielding a lower regression RMSE (6.36), a significantly improved pixel-level NTL intensity consistency (SNDI = 82.73, R2 = 0.986) and provided more coherent results when used for urban area extraction. The proposed method can be used to extend NTL time series, and in conjunction with the upcoming yearly VIIRS data and Black Marble daily VIIRS data, it is possible to support long-term NTL-based studies such as monitoring light pollution in ecosystems, and mapping human activities.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0924-2716 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2361  
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Author Manriquez, P.H.; Jara, M.E.; Diaz, M.I.; Quijon, P.A.; Widdicombe, S.; Pulgar, J.; Manriquez, K.; Quintanilla-Ahumada, D.; Duarte, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light pollution influences behavioral and physiological traits in a keystone predator species, Concholepas concholepas Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 661 Issue (up) Pages 543-552  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an increasing global problem that, despite being widely recognized in terrestrial systems, has been studied much less in marine habitats. In this study we investigated the effect of ALAN on behavioral and physiological traits of Concholepas concholepas, an important keystone species of the south-eastern Pacific coast. We used juveniles collected in intertidal habitats that had not previously been exposed to ALAN. In the laboratory we exposed them to two treatments: darkness and white LED (Lighting Emitting Diodes) to test for the impacts of ALAN on prey-searching behavior, self-righting time and metabolism. In the field, the distribution of juveniles was observed during daylight-hours to determine whether C. concholepas preferred shaded or illuminated microhabitats. Moreover, we compared the abundance of juveniles collected during day- and night-time hours. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that juveniles of C. concholepas seek out and choose their prey more efficiently in darkened areas. White LED illuminated conditions increased righting times and metabolism. Field surveys indicated that, during daylight hours, juveniles were more abundant in shaded micro-habitats than in illuminated ones. However, during darkness hours, individuals were not seen to aggregate in any particular microhabitats. We conclude that the exposure to ALAN might disrupt important behavioral and physiological traits of small juveniles in this species which, as a mechanism to avoid visual predators, are mainly active at night. It follows that ALAN in coastal areas might modify the entire community structure of intertidal habitats by altering the behavior of this keystone species.  
  Address Departamento de Ecologia y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30682607 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2213  
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