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Author Dick; R.
Title The Biological Basis for the Canadian Guideline for Outdoor Lighting 2--Impact of the Brightness of Light. Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada Abbreviated Journal
Volume 114 Issue 5 Pages 205-210
Keywords (down) Vison; Biology
Abstract One of the most obvious attributes of light is brightness. This paper will address specific brightness thresholds that have been found to impact animal health and behaviour, including humans. However, the meaning of brightness is vague and must be further refined and quantified. This paper will introduce and define these terms and will discuss the sensitivity of wildlife biology and behaviour to levels of luminance and illuminance. It may not be apparent from the common metrics used for “brightness” that a lamp will impact the ecosystem or human health. Our focus is on biology, which depends on the energy carried by the light, or its spectrum, and not strictly its apparent brightness. However, the subject of spectrum will be deferred to the third paper in this series.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3164
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Author Crumey, A.
Title Human Contrast Threshold and Astronomical Visibility. Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 422 Issue 3 Pages 2600-2619
Keywords (down) Vision; visibility; skyglow; sky brightness; modeling
Abstract The standard visibility model in light-pollution studies is the formula of Hecht, as used e.g. by Schaefer. However, it is applicable only to point sources and is shown to be of limited accuracy. A new visibility model is presented for uniform achromatic targets of any size against background luminances ranging from zero to full daylight, produced by a systematic procedure applicable to any appropriate data set (e.g. Blackwell's), and based on a simple but previously unrecognized empirical relation between contrast threshold and adaptation luminance. The scotopic luminance correction for variable spectral radiance (colour index) is calculated. For point sources, the model is more accurate than Hecht's formula and is verified using telescopic data collected at Mount Wilson in 1947, enabling the sky brightness at that time to be determined. The result is darker than the calculation by Garstang, implying that light pollution grew more rapidly in subsequent decades than has been supposed. The model is applied to the nebular observations of William Herschel, enabling his visual performance to be quantified. Proposals are made regarding sky quality indicators for public use.
Address Department of Humanities, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK; andrew.crumey(at)northumbria.ac.uk
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Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 536
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Author Barrette, T.P.; Pike, A.M.
Title Closed-Course Human Factors Evaluation of Marking and Marker Visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record
Volume 2673 Issue 10 Pages 840-849
Keywords (down) Vision; Transportation; Raised retroreflective pavement markers; retroreflectivity
Abstract Raised retroreflective pavement markers (RRPMs) are commonly used to provide nighttime delineation of roadways. Although RRPMs are visible during dry conditions, they provide their greatest benefit during wet-night conditions, when typical pavement markings become flooded and lose their retroreflectivite properties. Naturally, the retroreflectivity of RRPMs degrades over time as a result of traffic, ultraviolet light, precipitation, and roadway maintenance activities. Subsequently, it is necessary to examine the relationship between driver performance and the condition of the RRPMs. To assess visibility relative to RRPM condition, study participants rode in the passenger seat of a vehicle operated by a member of the research team, traveling at approximately 15 mph, for two laps around a closed course. Throughout each lap of the course, nine treatments consisting of RRPMs or preformed pavement marking tape of various retroreflectivity levels diverged from a center line to either the right or left. Participants indicated when they could tell which direction the treatment diverged, which was recorded using a GPS unit. A generalized linear model was estimated on a dataset constructed by pairing the observed distances from various treatments with demographic information about each participant. The analysis indicates the distance at which a particular treatment would be visible, which can then be converted to preview time to assess treatment adequacy for a variety of speeds. The RRPM treatments generally provided adequate preview time for older drivers based on the extant literature; however, the preformed pavement marking tape was less adequate at higher speeds and under overhead lighting.
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ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2499
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Author Lewis, A.L.
Title Visual Performance as a Function of Spectral Power Distribution of Light Sources at Luminances Used for General Outdoor Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society Abbreviated Journal Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society
Volume 28 Issue 1 Pages 37-42
Keywords (down) Vision; spectral power distribution; SPD; lighting
Abstract (none)
Address Michigan College of Optometry, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, Michigan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0099-4480 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2223
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Author Bennett, M.G.
Title The visual range of lights at night, and its relation to the visual range of ordinary objects by day. Type Journal Article
Year 1932 Publication Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Abbreviated Journal QJ Roy. Met. Soc
Volume 58 Issue Pages 259-271
Keywords (down) Vision; Skyglow
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2414
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