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Author Kotarba, A.Z.; Chacewicz, S.; Żmudzka, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night sky photometry over Warsaw (Poland) evaluated simultaneously with surface-based and satellite-based cloud observations Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 235 Issue Pages 95-107  
  Keywords (down) Skyglow  
  Abstract Light pollution is a widely distributed form of anthropogenic pollution that threatens both biodiversity and human health. One of the most popular indicators is known as night sky brightness (NSB), measured with photometric techniques. In the study, we report results of the very first, long-term photometric survey of NSB over Poland's capital, Warsaw, for 636 nights between 2014 and 2016 using a sky quality meter (SQM). Data were collected for all-weather conditions and, for the first time, we simultaneously use two independent sources of cloud amount data: surface-based (SYNOP) and satellite-based (Meteosat/SEVIRI). Results show that Warsaw is significantly polluted by light, with average NSB of 18.65 ± 0.06 magSQM/arcsec2 (15 times higher than unpolluted sky). Zenithal NSB is almost unaffected by moonlight. During astronomical nights, cloud cover was the dominant determinant of NSB, increasing by 7 times for overcast sky. In general, the sky brightened by ∼0.2 magSQM/arcsec2 for each 10% increase in cloud fraction. Satellite-based cloud amount data was found to be a very reliable alternative to traditional SYNOP observations. No statistically significant difference was found for average NSB calculated using satellite and SYNOP datasets. This finding is of particular importance, since the coverage of surface-based data is limited, while satellite observations can be obtained for any location on Earth, and collocate with any NSB photometric station. Our investigation also highlighted that SYNOP data are unreliable when cloud amount is low. This is due to the different fields of view for SQM (20°) and SYNOP (180°) observations of broken cloud.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2580  
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Two-index model for characterizing site-specific night sky brightness patterns Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 490 Issue 2 Pages 1953-1960  
  Keywords (down) Skyglow  
  Abstract The determination of the all-sky radiance distribution produced by artificial light sources is a computationally demanding task that generally requires intensive calculations. In this paper, we develop an analytical formulation that provides the all-sky radiance distribution produced by an artificial light source as an explicit and analytical function of the observation direction, depending on two single parameters that characterize the overall effects of the atmosphere. One of these parameters is related to the effective attenuation of the light beams, whereas the other accounts for the overall asymmetry of the combined scattering processes in molecules and aerosols. Using this formulation, a wide range of all-sky radiance distributions can be efficiently and accurately calculated in a short time. This substantial reduction in the number of required parameters, in comparison with other approaches that are currently used, is expected to facilitate the development of new applications in the field of light pollution research.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2704  
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Author Garstang, R. H. url  openurl
  Title Light Pollution at Mount Wilson and at Palomar in 1931-32 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 122 Issue Pages  
  Keywords (down) Skyglow  
  Abstract I present a short summary of an unpublished letter by Joel Stebbins on light pollution at Mount Wilson Observatory and on Palmar Mountain in 1931-32. I analyzed his results and show that the light emission per capita in 1932 – o was about 3*1*10^17 photons s^-1 in the blue region, equivalent to about 220 lumens per head in the visual region. These my be compared with about 1*4*10^18 photons s^-1 in the blue region and about 1000 lumens per head in the visual region for California cities in 1970.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2622  
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Author Garstang, R. H. url  openurl
  Title Limiting visual magnitude and night sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Memorie della Società Astronomia Italiana Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 71 Issue Pages  
  Keywords (down) Skyglow  
  Abstract We review the theory of visual thresholds and applications to the limiting magnitude of a telescope and of the eyes, based on Schaefers's model with minor improvements. We apply out formulation to the Yerkes Observatory refractor and to naked eye observations at Mount Wilson Observatory. We reanalyze Bowen's telescopic observations at Mount Wilson by his approximate method and by our more elaborate theory. An extension of his method leads to a determination of the night sky brightness of the visual activity of the observer is assumed to be average. Our more elaborate method allows a determination of the sky brightness, the visual acuity of the observer, and the average seeing during the observations.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2623  
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Author Treanor, P. J. url  openurl
  Title A simple propagation law for artificial night-sky illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 1973 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 93 Issue Pages 117-120  
  Keywords (down) Skyglow  
  Abstract The problem of locating new large astronomical observatories in sites which have a suitably dark night sky (artificial excess of the order of omi) is becoming increasingly difficult in Europe and the United States, on account of extensive urban development, the high luminous efficiency of modern discharge lighting, and the scattering of light in an atmosphere contaminated by aerosols. To investigate the artificial illumination of the sky over large regions on the basis of necessarily limited observations, one needs an expression for the zenith brightness produced by towns of known site and distance.

The exact derivation of such a law is exceedingly complex, involving the computation of the radiation transfer in an atmosphere with absorption, multiple scattering, and complicated physical and geometrical parameters. Notwithstanding these difficulties, it is possible to obtain a useful physical insight into the general form of this law by considering a very simplified model, consisting of a homogeneous atmosphere, in which vertical heights are small in relation to the horizontal distances between town and observatory, and which the scattering is limited to a cone of small angle whose axis lies in the direction of the incident beam. The limited scale height and optical thickness of the real atmosphere, and the forward-scattering characteristics of aerosols lend some plausibility to these simplifications.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2633  
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