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Author Min, M.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, P.; Hu, X.; Chen, L.; Li, X.; Huang, Y.; Zhu, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A low-light radiative transfer model for satellite observations of moonlight and earth surface light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 106954  
  Keywords (down) Remote Sensing; Instrumentation  
  Abstract Lunar sun-reflected light can be effectively measured through a low-light band or a day/night band (DNB) implemented on space-based optical sensors. Based on moonlight, nocturnal observations for artificial light sources at night can be achieved. However, to date, an open-sourced and mature Low-Light Radiative Transfer Model (LLRTM) for the further understanding of the radiative transfer problem at night is still unavailable. Therefore, this study develops a new LLRTM at night with the correction of the lunar and active surface light sources. First, the radiative transfer equations with an active surface light source are derived for the calculation based on the lunar spectral irradiance (LSI) model. The simulation from this new LLRTM shows a minimal bias when compared with the discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) model. The simulated results of radiance and reflectance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) also show that the surface light source has a remarkable impact on the radiative transfer process. In contrast, the change in the lunar phase angle has minimal influence. Also, comparing with space-based DNB radiance observations, LLRTM shows the potential to simulate space-based low-light imager observations under an effective surface light source condition during the night.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2850  
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Author Yuan, X.; Jia, L.; Menenti, M.; Zhou, J.; Chen, Q. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Filtering the NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Improved Detection of Settlements in Africa Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 11 Issue 24 Pages 3002  
  Keywords (down) Remote Sensing; Instrumentation  
  Abstract Observing and understanding changes in Africa is a hotspot in global ecological environmental research since the early 1970s. As possible causes of environmental degradation, frequent droughts and human activities attracted wide attention. Remote sensing of nighttime light provides an effective way to map human activities and assess their intensity. To identify settlements more effectively, this study focused on nighttime light in the northern Equatorial Africa and Sahel settlements to propose a new method, namely, the patches filtering method (PFM) to identify nighttime lights related to settlements from the National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) monthly nighttime light data by separating signal components induced by biomass burning, thereby generating a new annual image in 2016. The results show that PFM is useful for improving the quality of NPP-VIIRS monthly nighttime light data. Settlement lights were effectively separated from biomass burning lights, in addition to capturing the seasonality of biomass burning. We show that the new 2016 nighttime light image can very effectively identify even small settlements, notwithstanding their fragmentation and unstable power supply. We compared the image with earlier NPP-VIIRS annual nighttime light data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI) for 2016 and the Sentinel-2 prototype Land Cover 20 m 2016 map of Africa released by the European Space Agency (ESA-S2-AFRICA-LC20). We found that the new annual nighttime light data performed best among the three datasets in capturing settlements, with a high recognition rate of 61.8%, and absolute superiority for settlements of 2.5 square kilometers or less. This shows that the method separates biomass burning signals very effectively, while retaining the relatively stable, although dim, lights of small settlements. The new 2016 annual image demonstrates good performance in identifying human settlements in sparsely populated areas toward a better understanding of human activities.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2890  
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Author Roychowdhury, K.; Jones, S.; Arrowsmith, C.; Reinke, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Indian census using satellite images: Can DMSP-OLS data be used for small administrative regions? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), 2011 Joint Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 153 - 156  
  Keywords (down) Remote Sensing; India; South Asia; DMSP; DMSP-OLS  
  Abstract India conducts its census every ten years. Census data is collected manually in India with enumerators visiting every household in the country. Being such a vast country (in terms of area) and with a population of more than 1 billion, manual data collection is a laborious and expensive process. In response, this paper proposes a surrogate census method using DMSP-OLS night-time images. The study focuses on smaller administrative regions such as sub-districts (or taluks as they are known in the country) in the state of Maharashtra. Models are proposed using selected census metrics, and mean and standard deviation of stable lights and brightness information as obtained from the satellite images. The adjusted r2 values range from 0.2 to 0.8 at 95% confidence interval, with the majority of the metrics being moderately correlated (with r2 between 0.4 and 0.7). Generally it was found that the observed lights and brightness of big rural settlements from DMSP-OLS images have the potential for predicting certain census metrics. However, unlike larger areas such as districts where DMSP-OLS night-time images adequately predict census metrics, at the sub-district level the results need to be supplemented and validated with other information sources such as survey reports.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 490  
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Author Baskaran, T.; Min, B.; Uppal, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Election cycles and electricity provision: Evidence from a quasi-experiment with Indian special elections Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Public Economics Abbreviated Journal Journal of Public Economics  
  Volume 126 Issue Pages 64-73  
  Keywords (down) Remote Sensing; India; South Asia  
  Abstract We present evidence from India showing that state governments induce electoral cycles in electricity service provision. Our data and research strategy allow us to build on models of political business cycles and targeted distribution in two important ways. First, we demonstrate that by manipulating the flow of critical inputs into economic activity like electricity, elected leaders can influence economic outcomes even in contexts where they have constrained fiscal capacity. Second, we identify the effect of elections on electricity provision by focusing on special elections held for exogenous reasons. Our results show that state governments induce substantive increases in electricity service to constituencies that hold special elections. Manipulation of the power supply is stronger in contested constituencies and during special elections held in states where the government commands only a small majority. Overall, we find no evidence of positive welfare effects from the electoral manipulation of electricity supply.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0047-2727 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2029  
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Author Kumar, P.; Rehman, S.; Sajjad, H.; Tripathy, B.R.; Rani, M.; Singh, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Analyzing trend in artificial light pollution pattern in India using NTL sensor's data Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Urban Climate Abbreviated Journal Urban Climate  
  Volume 27 Issue Pages 272-283  
  Keywords (down) Remote Sensing; India; DMSP; DMSP-OLS  
  Abstract Exponential growth of population and the resultant rapid rate of urbanization and industrialization in India have significantly transformed its nighttime light environment. The study makes an attempt to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of light pollution and its causative actors in a fast-developing economy. We utilized nighttime light data from 1993 to 2013 and calibrated through linear regression. Ten patches of major changes from the whole study area were selected to assess the intensity of light pollution at regional scale. Spatial analysis of light pollution in selected patches revealed that New Delhi, Telangana, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh experienced increase in very high light pollution intensity. West Bengal, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu witnessed a remarkable change from low to high light pollution. Urban expansion, industrial development and air pollution are main drivers for increasing light pollution. Strong correlation was found between light pollution and digital numbers (DN) values at regional scale. The maps generated through Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line Scanner Night Time Light data not only helped in assessing the intensity of light pollution but also identified its causative actors.The results of study can effectively be utilized for setting priorities of environmental protection in different geographical regions at various scales.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2212-0955 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2144  
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