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Author Cisse, Y.M.; Russart, K.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Exposure to dim light at night prior to conception attenuates offspring innate immune responses Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages e0231140
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Functional circadian timekeeping is necessary for homeostatic control of the immune system and appropriate immune responsiveness. Disruption of natural light-dark cycles, through light at night (LAN), impairs innate and adaptive immune responses in nocturnal rodents. These altered immune responses are associated with disrupted endogenous gene transcriptional and endocrine cycles. However, few studies have addressed the multigenerational consequences of systemic circadian rhythm disruption. We hypothesized that parental exposure to dim LAN (dLAN) would alter innate immune and sickness responses to an endotoxin challenge in adult offspring gestated and reared in dark nights. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 8 weeks, then paired, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Maternal exposure to dLAN prior to conception impaired febrile responses and increased splenic il-1 production in response to LPS in male offspring. Paternal pre-conception dLAN dampened offspring tnf-alpha expression in the hypothalamus, reduced serum bactericidal capacity, and dark phase locomotor activity. These changes occurred despite offspring being conceived, gestated, and reared under standard dark night conditions. Overall, these data suggest that dLAN has intergenerational effects on innate immunity and sickness responses.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32302341 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2887
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Author Kerbiriou, C.; Barré, K.; Mariton, L.; Pauwels, J.; Zissis, G.; Robert, A.; Le Viol, I.
Title Switching LPS to LED Streetlight May Dramatically Reduce Activity and Foraging of Bats Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Diversity Abbreviated Journal Diversity
Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 165
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night is considered a major threat to biodiversity, especially for nocturnal species, as it reduces habitat availability, quality, and functionality. Since the recent evolution in light technologies in improving luminous efficacy, developed countries are experiencing a renewal of their lighting equipment that reaches its end-of-life, from conventional lighting technologies to light emitting diodes (LEDs). Despite potential cascading impacts of such a shift on nocturnal fauna, few studies have so far dealt with the impact of the renewal of street lighting by new technologies. Specifically, only one study, by Rowse et al.2016, examined the effects of switching from widely used low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps to LEDs, using bats as biological models. This study was based on a before-after-control-impact paired design (BACIP) at 12 pairs in the UK, each including one control and one experimental streetlight. If Rowse et al. 2016 showed no effect of switching to LEDs streetlights on bat activity, the effects of respective changes in light intensity and spectrum were not disentangled when testing switch effects. Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of their data to include these covariates in statistical models with the aim of disentangling the relative effects of these light characteristics. Our re-analysis clearly indicates that the switches in spectrum and in intensity with replacement of LPS with LED lamps have significant additive and interactive effects, on bat activity. We also show that bat activity and buzz ratio decrease with increasing LED intensity while an opposite effect is observed with LPS lamps. Hence, the loss or the gain in bat activity when lamp types, i.e., spectrum, are switched strongly depends on the initial and new lamp intensities. Our results stress the need to consider simultaneously the effects of changes in the different lights characteristics when street lighting changes. Because switches from LPS to LED lamps can lead to an increase in light intensity, such technological changes may involve a reduction of bat activity in numerous cases, especially at high LED intensities. Since we are currently at an important crossroad in lighting management, we recommend to limit LED intensity and improve its spectral composition toward warmer colors to limit potential deleterious impacts on bat activity.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1424-2818 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2892
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Author Zhao, X.; Zhang M.; Che, X.; Zou, F.
Title Blue light attracts nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Light pollution is increasing and artificial light sources have great impacts on animals. For migrating birds, collisions caused by artificial light pollution are a significant source of mortality. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that birds have different visual sensitivities to different colors of light, but few field experiments have compared birds’ responses to light of different wavelengths. We used 3 monochromatic lights (red, green, and blue) and polychromatic yellow light to study the impact of wavelength on phototaxis at 2 gathering sites of nocturnally migrating birds in Southwest China. For both sites, short-wavelength blue light caused the strongest phototactic response. In contrast, birds were rarely attracted to long-wavelength red light. The attractive effect of blue light was greatest during nights with fog and headwinds. As rapid urbanization and industrialization cause an increase in artificial light, we suggest that switching to longer wavelength lights is a convenient and economically effective way to reduce bird collisions.

摘要

目前地球上光污染日益严重,五颜六色的人工光源对生态系统造成了很大影响。就鸟类而言,在世界各地已发生了很多鸟类撞击人工光源的事件。实验室研究表明,鸟类对不同颜色的光有不同的视觉敏感度,但很少有野外实验比较鸟类对不同波长光的反应。我们在中国西南地区的两个夜间候鸟迁徙聚集点使用三种单色光(红、绿、蓝)和一种复合光(黄),研究了光波长对的候鸟趋光性的影响。研究表明,短波长的蓝光引起了候鸟最强烈的趋光性反应。相反,鸟类很少被长波长的红光所吸引。特别是在有雾和逆风的夜晚,蓝光的吸引力最大。由于快速的城市化和工业化导致人造光的增加,我们认为使用长波光是一个减少鸟类碰撞光源的方便和经济有效的方式。
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2896
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Author Schottstädt, D.
Title Erfahrungen zur Anlockwirkung unterschiedlicher künstlicher Lichtquellen auf Nachtfalter (Lepidoptera: Macroheterocera) Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Sächsische Entomologische Zeitschrift Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue Pages 120-140
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Light capture is the most effective method for the qualitative and quantitative collection of moths. This paper gives a brief overview of light traps installations, bulbs and their light spectrum, especially with respect to the ultraviolet radiation. In field ex-periments, various bulbs were used to study for their attractiveness to moths. In practical application, it should be noted that moths fly against the wind towards artificial light sources, they should be positioned so that the wind blows from the light source towards the biotope. For the manual light capture, almost all featured bulbs are suitable. If species of a larger catchment area are to be collected, higher-performance bulbs are recommend-ed, to attract more species and subjects. However, this could lead to more restlessness at the catchment, where considerable proportion of moths would only settle and found around the perimeter of the catchment area. For biotope-related light capture, stand-ardized systems with fluorescent tubes or more recently with LEDs are recommended, to enable comparison of studies. If comparison is not required, energy-saving lamps are recommended instead, because they have a higher light density with the same number of lumens, which entails a higher attracting effect. Mercury vapor and energy saving lamps have almost identical spectrum, but differ in power and its associated radiant energy. When these bulbs are used simultaneously, moths always fly towards the light source with the higher radiant energy. Therefore, it is not necessary to operate an energy-saving lamp or fluorescent tube next to a high-pressure lamp. Likewise, with the combination of su-peractinic, black light fluorescent tubes and energy-saving lamps. The superactinic lamp has a much higher radiation energy in the ultraviolet range and also has wavelengths in the blue range, while the black light lamp emits only certain wavelengths in the UV range.

Zusammenfassung.Der Lichtfang ist die effektivste Methode zur qualitativen und quantitativen Erfassung von Nachtfaltern. Es wird ein kurzer Überblick über Lichtfangan-lagen, Leuchtmittel und deren Lichtspektren, insbesondere mit Bezug auf die ultraviolette Strahlung gegeben. In Feldversuchen wurden verschiedene Leuchtmittel auf ihre Anlock-wirkung auf Nachtfalter verwendet. Im praktischen Einsatz ist dabei zu beachten, dass Nachtfalter gegen den Wind künstliche Lichtquellen anfliegen, so dass diese so aufgestellt werden sollten, dass der Wind vom Licht in den Biotop weht. Für den manuellen Lichtfang sind fast alle vorgestellten Leuchtmittel geeignet. Sollen die Arten eines größeren Einzugs-gebietes erfasst werden, sind leistungsstärkere Leuchtmittel zu empfehlen, mit denen etwas mehr Arten und sehr viel mehr Individuen angelockt werden. Dies geht aber mit mehr Unruhe an der Anlage einher und ein beträchtlicher Anteil der Falter setzt sich in der Umgebung der Anlage nieder, so dass die Umgebung nach Faltern abzusuchen ist. Für den biotopbezogenen Lichtfang sind standardisierte Anlagen mit Leuchtstoffröhren bzw. neuerdings mit LEDs zu empfehlen, um die eigenen Untersuchungen mit anderen vergleichen zu können. Ist dies nicht nötig, sind stattdessen Energiesparlampen empfe-hlenswert, da diese eine höhere Lichtdichte bei gleicher Lumenzahl aufweisen, was eine höhere Anlockwirkung mit sich bringt. Quecksilberdampf- und Energiesparlampen weisen fast identische Spektren auf, unterscheiden sich aber in der Leistung und der damit ver-bundenen Strahlungsenergie. Bei gleichzeitiger Verwendung dieser Leuchtmittel fliegen Nachtfalter immer die Lichtquelle mit der höheren Strahlungsenergie an. Deshalb ist es nicht erforderlich, neben einer Hochdrucklampe eine Energiesparlampe oder Leuchtst-offröhre zu betreiben. Ähnlich verhält es sich mit der Kombination superaktinischer und Schwarzlicht-Leuchtstoffröhren und Energiesparlampen. Die superaktinische Lampe hat eine viel höhere Strahlungsenergie im ultravioletten Bereich und besitzt auch Wellenlän-gen im blauen Bereich, während die Schwarzlichtlampe nur im UV-Bereich bestimmte Wellenlängen emittiert.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2902
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Author Marín-Gómez, O.H.; García-Arroyo, M.; Sánchez-Sarria, C.E.; Sosa-López, J.R.; Santiago-Alarcon, D.; MacGregor-Fors, I.
Title Nightlife in the city: drivers of the occurrence and vocal activity of a tropical owl Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Avian Research Abbreviated Journal Avian Res
Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages in press
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Background

Cities differ from non-urban environments by the intensity, scale, and extent of anthropogenic pressures, which can drive the occurrence, physiology, and behavior of the organisms thriving in these settings. Traits as green cover often predict the occurrence patterns of bird species in urban areas. Yet, anthropogenic noise and artificial light at night (ALAN) could also limit the presence and disrupt the behavior of birds. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge about the influence of urbanization through noise and light pollution on nocturnal bird species ecology. In this study, we assessed the role of green cover, noise, and light pollution on the occurrence and vocal activity of the Mottled Owl (Ciccaba virgata) in the city of Xalapa (Mexico).

Methods

We obtained soundscape recordings in 61 independent sites scattered across the city of Xalapa using autonomous recording units. We performed a semi-automated acoustic analysis of the recordings, corroborating all Mottled Owl vocalizations. We calculated two measures of anthropogenic noise at each study site: daily noise (during 24 h) and masking noise (mean noise amplitude at night per site that could mask the owl’s vocalizations). We further performed generalized linear models to relate green cover, ALAN, daily noise, and masking noise in relation to the owl’s occurrence (i.e., detected, undetected). We also ran linear models to assess relationships among the beginning and ending of vocal activity with ALAN, and with the anthropogenic and masking noise levels at the moment of which vocalizations were emitted. Finally, we explored variations of the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl measured as vocalization rate across time.

Results

The presence of Mottled Owls increased with the size of green cover and decreased with increases in both artificial light at night and noise levels. At the temporal scale, green cover was positively related with the ending of the owl’s vocal activity, while daily noise and ALAN levels were not related to the timing and vocal output (i.e., number of vocalizations). Furthermore, the Mottled Owl showed a marked peak of vocal activity before dawn than after dusk. Although anthropogenic noise levels varied significantly across the assessed time, we did not find an association between high vocal output during time periods with lower noise levels.

Conclusions

Spatially, green cover area was positively related with the presence of the Mottled Owl in Xalapa, while high noise and light pollution were related to its absence. At a temporal scale, daily noise and ALAN levels were not related with the timing and vocal output. This suggests that instead of environmental factors, behavioral contexts such as territoriality and mate interactions could drive the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl. Further studies need to incorporate a wider seasonal scale in order to explore the variation of different vocalizations of this species in relation to environmental and biological factors.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2053-7166 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2912
Permanent link to this record