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Author Voigt, C.C., Scholl, J.M., Bauer, J. et al.
Title Movement responses of common noctule bats to the illuminated urban landscape Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 35 Issue Pages 189-201
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Context

Cities are a challenging habitat for obligate nocturnal mammals because of the ubiquitous use of artificial light at night (ALAN). How nocturnal animals move in an urban landscape, particularly in response to ALAN is largely unknown.

Objectives

We studied the movement responses, foraging and commuting, of common noctules (Nyctalus noctula) to urban landscape features in general and ALAN in particular.

Methods

We equipped 20 bats with miniaturized GPS loggers in the Berlin metropolitan area and related spatial positions of bats to anthropogenic and natural landscape features and levels of ALAN.

Results

Common noctules foraged close to ALAN only next to bodies of water or well vegetated areas, probably to exploit swarms of insects lured by street lights. In contrast, they avoided illuminated roads, irrespective of vegetation cover nearby. Predictive maps identified most of the metropolitan area as non-favoured by this species because of high levels of impervious surfaces and ALAN. Dark corridors were used by common noctules for commuting and thus likely improved the permeability of the city landscape.

Conclusions

We conclude that the spatial use of common noctules, previously considered to be more tolerant to light than other bats, is largely constrained by ALAN. Our study is the first individual-based GPS tracking study to show sensitive responses of nocturnal wildlife to light pollution. Approaches to protect urban biodiversity need to include ALAN to safeguard the larger network of dark habitats for bats and other nocturnal species in cities.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2961
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Author Kernbach, M. E., Cassone, V. M., Unnasch, T. R., & Martin, L. B.
Title Broad-spectrum light pollution suppresses melatonin and increases West Nile virus–induced mortality in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) has become a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for both humans and wildlife. Although many negative impacts of ALAN on human health have been identified, the consequences for infectious disease dynamics are largely unexplored. With the increase in popularity of energy efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the effects of spectral composition of ALAN have also come into question. Previous studies showed that exposure to low levels of incandescent ALAN extended the infectious period of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) infected with West Nile virus (WNV) without affecting mortality rates, thus increasing the pathogen initial reproductive rate (R0) by ~41%. Here, we asked whether exposure to broad-spectrum (3000 K [Kelvin; unit of color temperature]) ALAN suppressed melatonin, a hormone implicated in ALAN-induced physiological consequences, in House Sparrows. We then asked whether amber-hue bulbs (1800 K) could ameliorate the effects of WNV on individual sparrows, and whether broad-spectrum or blue-rich bulbs (3000 K and 5000 K, respectively) could exacerbate them. We found that exposure to low intensity (~5 lux) broad-spectrum (3000 K) ALAN significantly suppressed melatonin levels throughout the night. Second, we found that exposure to broad-spectrum and blue-rich (3000 + 5000 K) lights did not affect WNV viremia but did increase WNV-induced mortality. Conversely, birds exposed to amber-hue (1800 K) ALAN had lower viremia and mortality rates similar to controls (i.e. natural light conditions). This study demonstrates that ALAN affects melatonin regulation in birds, but this effect, as well as ALAN influences on infectious disease responses, can be ameliorated by particular lighting technologies.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2967
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Author Pan, H.; Xu, Y.; Liang, G.; Wyckhuys, K.A.G.; Yang, Y.; Lu, Y.
Title Field evaluation of light-emitting diodes to trap the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Crop Protection Abbreviated Journal Crop Protection
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a limiting pest of many agricultural crops worldwide. At present, in-field populations of H. armigera are routinely monitored using conventional light traps. During 2014, 2015, we conducted field assays to assess the relative attractiveness of narrow-band light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 19 single wavelengths (375–748 nm) in H. armigera light traps. Between 2016 and 2019, LEDs with the most attractive wavelengths were then further evaluated in two different sites, i.e., Xinxiang and Anci (China). During 2014–2015, the highest H. armigera trap capture was obtained with LEDs at 395 nm, while it was not significantly different from LED wavelengths of 375 nm and 418 nm in 2015. During field trials in Xinxiang, H. armigera trap capture did not differ among (four) wavelengths (375 nm, 385 nm, 395 nm, and 405 nm) in either year. In the Anci site, most H. armigera adults were caught in traps equipped with LEDs of 385 nm during two years, but it was not significantly different from those at 405 nm in 2017. In 2019, H. armigera trap capture rate was higher for LEDs at 385 nm than for those at 395 nm, and 2.91-fold higher to that of a commercial UV blacklight (365 ± 50 nm) trap. Our work shows how LED-equipped traps constitute an efficient, energy-conserving way to monitor cotton bollworm populations, providing trap capture rates that surpass those of conventional technologies. We discuss how these innovative measures can complement the integrated pest management (IPM) toolbox for H. armigera in China and abroad.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0261-2194 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2984
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Author Cabrera-Cruz, S.A.; Cohen, E.B.; Smolinsky, J.A.; Buler, J.J.
Title Artificial Light at Night is Related to Broad-Scale Stopover Distributions of Nocturnally Migrating Landbirds along the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages 395
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The distributions of birds during migratory stopovers are influenced by a hierarchy of factors. For example, in temperate regions, migrants are concentrated near areas of bright artificial light at night (ALAN) and also the coastlines of large water bodies at broad spatial scales. However, less is known about what drives broad-scale stopover distributions in the tropics. We quantified seasonal densities of nocturnally migrating landbirds during spring and fall of 2011–2015, using two weather radars on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico (Sabancuy and Cancun). We tested the influence of environmental predictors in explaining broad-scale bird stopover densities. We predicted higher densities in areas (1) closer to the coast in the fall and farther away in spring and (2) closer to bright ALAN and with lower ALAN intensity in both seasons. We found that birds were more concentrated near the coastline in the fall and away from it in spring around Cancun but not Sabancuy. Counter to our expectations, we detected increased bird densities with increased distance from lights in spring around Sabancuy, and in both seasons around Cancun, suggesting avoidance of bright areas during those seasons. This is the first evidence of broad-scale bird avoidance of bright areas during stopover.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3004
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Author Alquezar, R.D.; Macedo, R.H.; Sierro, J.; Gil, D.
Title Lack of consistent responses to aircraft noise in dawn song timing of bird populations near tropical airports Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol
Volume 74 Issue 7 Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Birds living near airports can reduce the noise interference by advancing their dawn chorus timing and avoiding the start of airport operations. Data supporting this finding come from temperate areas, but little is known from tropical environments, where seasonal variation is lower and biodiversity is higher. Here, we investigated whether 15 tropical bird species are able to advance their dawn song and avoid aircraft noise interference. We sampled dawn song in three airports and three control sites in Brazil, using automated recording units. We found that dawn song times were not globally affected by the exposure to airport noise. Instead, changes were highly variable and species-specific, as dawn song onset was significantly advanced in two and delayed in four species. This large variation in responses was surprising given patterns found in previous studies. Indeed, this is the first time that a significant delay is reported for bird’s dawn song. We explored whether between-species differences in this response could be explained by additional variables (song frequency, degree of urbanity, and noise release), but none of them explained the direction or the strength of the changes. We suggest that earlier airport activity and shorter variations in day length and in twilight duration of tropical areas may be restricting birds’ ability to change dawn song timing. Further studies should consider these differences and analyze to what extent populational declines in noisy areas and the resultant reduced competition for acoustic space may be affecting the changes in dawn chorus onset time.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3017
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