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Author Brauckhoff, M.; Wahlberg, M.; Haga, J.Å.R.; Karlsen, H.E.; Wilson, M.
Title Embracing Their Prey at That Dark Hour: Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Can Hunt in Nighttime Light Conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Frontiers in Physiology Abbreviated Journal Front. Physiol.
Volume 11 Issue Pages in press
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Cuttlefish are highly efficient predators, which strongly rely on their anterior binocular visual field for hunting and prey capture. Their complex eyes possess adaptations for low light conditions. Recently, it was discovered that they display camouflaging behavior at night, perhaps to avoid detection by predators, or to increase their nighttime hunting success. This raises the question whether cuttlefish are capable of foraging during nighttime. In the present study, prey capture of the common cuttlefish (Sepiaofficinalis) was filmed with a high-speed video camera in different light conditions.Experiments were performed in daylight and with near-infrared light sources in two simulated nightlight conditions, as well as in darkness. The body of the common cuttlefish maintained a velocity of less than 0.1 m/s during prey capture, while the tentacles during the seizing phase reached velocities of up to 2.5 m/s and accelerations reached more than 450 m/s2 for single individuals. There was no significant difference between the day and nighttime trials, respectively. In complete darkness, the common cuttlefish was unable to catch any prey. Our results show that the common cuttlefish are capable of catching prey during day- and nighttime light conditions. The common cuttlefish employ similar sensory motor systems and prey capturing techniques during both day- and nighttime conditions.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1664-042X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3021
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Author Bolliger, J.; Hennet, T.; Wermelinger, B.; Bösch, R.; Pazur, R.; Blum, S.; Haller, J.; Obrist, M.K.
Title Effects of traffic-regulated street lighting on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Basic and Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal Basic and Applied Ecology
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract New technological developments modulate the light levels of LED street luminaires according to traffic volumes: light levels are increased given traffic and reduced in its absence. Such dimming of street lights reduces the level of artificial light at night (ALAN) and may thus contribute to mitigate light pollution. To quantify the impact of traffic-driven dimming of street lights on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity in comparison to full light (i.e., dimming functions of luminaires switched off), we mounted 20 insect flight-interception traps and ten batloggers on street light poles along two dimmable street light sections. Insect abundance and bat activity were measured alternately with one week of full street lighting followed by a week with light levels modulated by traffic volumes. In total, 16 dimmed and 16 full-light days were investigated. Overall, traffic-driven dimming reduced light levels by 35%. Weather conditions (warm, dry nights) were the main drivers of insect abundance and bat activity, but traffic-driven dimming resulted in lower numbers of insects caught and reduced bat activity. Among insect groups, Heteroptera benefited most from dimming. For bats, urban exploiters (Pipistrellus spp.) benefited from increased availability of prey at brightly lit street lights, while less frequent species (Myotis spp.) did not benefit from street lighting. We conclude that street light dimming technology may contribute to mitigate negative effects of ALAN on nocturnal organisms, although the measure may not be efficient enough to support light-sensitive and threatened species.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1439-1791 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3027
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Author Rosolen, S.-G.; Brugère-Picoux, J.; Leroy, E.
Title Le chat est-il une victime collatérale de la pollution lumineuse? // Is the cat a victim of light pollution? Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Bulletin de l'Académie Vétérinaire de France Abbreviated Journal Bul. de l'Ac. Vét. de France
Volume in press Issue 2 Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract There are more than 75 million cats in Europe, a number that is constantly increasing. It is an animal that adapts very well to a reduced space and can live alone. However, it is also a preda-tor, a behavior that requires frequent wandering away from its familiar environment. Along with the dog, it is the most medicalized animal species and whose life expectancy is increasing. Living in close contact with man, it shares its environment, and is thus subjected to the same environmental impacts such as light pollution : reduction of darkness in time and space and its replacement by artificial light. A recent study has shown that 45% of sedentary cats are overweight or even obese. We hypothesize that among the factors favouring obesity, the extension of domestic lighting would play an important role. In human, obesity is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, which is a public health problem. The same is true for obese cats. As a clinical expression of a homologous human disease, it is THE animal model of type 2 diabetes so much sought after by the scientific community. Light pollution presents another risk for the wandering cat: the probability of encountering wild animals (rodents, mus-telids, birds, etc.) which, especially during the confinement period, are attracted by the space released by humans. This risk is important to consider because of the cat’s sensitivity to coronaviruses, in particular Sars-CoV-2, which it is likely to contract from with the wild animals that it may encounter. In the context of a pandemic situation, the question of unrestricted itinerancy of cats must be addressed. Cats should only be allowed to roam freely when they are vaccinated and undergo regular anti-parasite treatments.

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Il y a plus de 75 millions de chats en Europe et leur nombre ne cesse d’augmenter. C’est un animal qui s’accommode très bien d’un espace réduit, qui peut rester seul mais c’est aussi un chasseur qui peut demander à sortir fréquemment de son environnement familier. Avec le chien, c’est l’espèce animale de compagnie la plus médicalisée et dont l’espérance de vie augmente. Il vit étroitement au contact de l’homme, partage son environnement et est soumis aux mêmes impacts environnementaux que ce der-nier, notamment la pollution lumineuse ; c’est à dire la réduction de la part d’obscurité en temps et en espace et son remplacement par des lumières artificielles. Une étude récente a montré que 45% des chats sédentaires sont en surpoids, voire obèses. Nous émettons l’hypothèse que, parmi les facteurs favorisant l’obésité, l’allongement de l’éclairage domestique jouerait un rôle important. Chez l’homme, l’obésité est un facteur de risque d’apparition du diabète (type 2) qui est un problème de santé publique. Chez le chat obèse, il en est de même. Exprimant cliniquement la maladie humaine homologue c’est LE modèle animal de diabète de type 2 tant recherché par la communauté scientifique. La pollution lumineuse fait courir un autre risque au chat qui se promène : la probabilité de rencontre avec la faune sauvage (ron-geurs, mustélidés, oiseaux, etc.) qui, notamment en cas de confinement, est attirée par l’espace libéré par l’homme. Ce risque est d’autant plus à prendre en considération que le chat est une espèce sensible aux coronaviroses, notamment le Sars-CoV-2 qu’il pourrait contracter au contact de la faune sauvage. Dans un contexte de pandémie, la question de la libre circulation des chats doit se poser et ne devraient sortir librement que les animaux vaccinés et subissant régulièrement des traitements antiparasitaires.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language French Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2259-2385 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3053
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Author Ayalon, I.; de Barros Marangoni, L.F.; Benichou, J.I.C.; Avisar, D.; Levy, O.
Title Red Sea corals under Artificial Light Pollution at Night (ALAN) undergo oxidative stress and photosynthetic impairment Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 25 Issue 12 Pages 4194-4207
Keywords (up) Animals; *Anthozoa; Coral Reefs; Ecosystem; Indian Ocean; Oxidative Stress; Photosynthesis; Alan; Ros; corals; light pollution; photosynthesis; physiology
Abstract Coral reefs represent the most diverse marine ecosystem on the planet, yet they are undergoing an unprecedented decline due to a combination of increasing global and local stressors. Despite the wealth of research investigating these stressors, Artificial Light Pollution at Night (ALAN) or “ecological light pollution” represents an emerging threat that has received little attention in the context of coral reefs, despite the potential of disrupting the chronobiology, physiology, behavior, and other biological processes of coral reef organisms. Scleractinian corals, the framework builders of coral reefs, depend on lunar illumination cues to synchronize their biological rhythms such as behavior, reproduction and physiology. While, light pollution (POL) may mask and lead de-synchronization of these biological rhythms process. To reveal if ALAN impacts coral physiology, we have studied two coral species, Acropora eurystoma and Pocillopora damicornis, from the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba, Red Sea, which is undergoing urban development that has led to severe POL at night. Our two experimental design data revealed that corals exposed to ALAN face an oxidative stress condition, show lower photosynthesis performances measured by electron transport rate (ETR), as well as changes in chlorophyll and algae density parameters. Testing different lights such as Blue LED and White LED spectrum showed more extreme impact in comparison to Yellow LEDs on coral physiology. The finding of this work sheds light on the emerging threat of POL and the impacts on the biology and ecology of Scleractinian corals, and will help to formulate specific management implementations to mitigate its potentially harmful impacts.
Address Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31512309; PMCID:PMC6900201 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2809
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Author Westby, K.M.; Medley, K.A.
Title Cold Nights, City Lights: Artificial Light at Night Reduces Photoperiodically Induced Diapause in Urban and Rural Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Medical Entomology Abbreviated Journal J Med Entomol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals; Aedes albopictus; artificial light at night; common garden; diapause; urban ecology
Abstract As the planet becomes increasingly urbanized, it is imperative that we understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of urbanization on species. One common attribute of urbanization that differs from rural areas is the prevalence of artificial light at night (ALAN). For many species, light is one of the most important and reliable environmental cues, largely governing the timing of daily and seasonal activity patterns. Recently, it has been shown that ALAN can alter behavioral, phenological, and physiological traits in diverse taxa. For temperate insects, diapause is an essential trait for winter survival and commences in response to declining daylight hours in the fall. Diapause is under strong selection pressure in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse); local adaptation and rapid evolution has been observed along a latitudinal cline. It is unknown how ALAN affects this photosensitive trait or if local adaptation has occurred along an urbanization gradient. Using a common garden experiment, we experimentally demonstrated that simulated ALAN reduces diapause incidence in this species by as much as 40%. There was no difference, however, between urban and rural demes. We also calculated diapause incidence from wild demes in urban areas to determine whether wild populations exhibited lower than predicted incidence compared to estimates from total nocturnal darkness. In early fall, lower than predicted diapause incidence was recorded, but all demes reached nearly 100% diapause before terminating egg laying. It is possible that nocturnal resting behavior in vegetation limits the amount of ALAN exposure this species experiences potentially limiting local adaptation.
Address Tyson Research Center, Washington University in Saint Louis, Eureka, MO
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-2585 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32638000 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3042
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