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Author Seymoure, B. M., Linares, C., & White, J.
Title Connecting spectral radiometry of anthropogenic light sources to the visual ecology of organisms Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 308 Issue 2 Pages 93-110
Keywords (up) Animals; Ecology; color space; ecological consequences; just noticeable difference; light pollution; photoreceptors; radiance; visual models; visual systems
Abstract Humans have drastically altered nocturnal environments with electric lighting. Animals depend on natural night light conditions and are now being inundated with artificial lighting. There are numerous artificial light sources that differ in spectral composition that should affect the perception of these light sources and due to differences in animal visual systems, the differences in color perception of these anthropogenic light sources should vary significantly. The ecological and evolutionary ramifications of these perceptual differences of light sources remain understudied. Here, we quantify the radiance of nine different street lights comprised of four different light sources: Metal Halide, Mercury Vapor, Light Emitting Diodes, and High‐Pressure Sodium and model how five animal visual systems will be stimulated by these light sources. We calculated the number of photons that photoreceptors in different visual systems would detect. We selected five visual systems: avian UV/VIS, avian V/VIS, human, wolf and hawk moth. We included non‐visual photoreceptors of vertebrates known for controlling circadian rhythms and other physiological traits. The nine light types stimulated visual systems and the photoreceptors within the visual systems differently. Furthermore, we modelled the chromatic contrast (Just Noticeable Differences [JNDs]) and color space overlap for each light type comparison for each visual system to see if organisms would perceive the lights as different colors. The JNDs of most light type comparisons were very high, indicating most visual systems would detect all light types as different colors, however mammalian visual systems would perceive many lights as the same color. We discuss the importance of understanding not only the brightness of artificial light types, but also the spectral composition of light types, as most organisms have different visual systems from humans. Thus, for researchers to understand how artificial light sources affect the visual environment of specific organisms and thus mitigate the effects, spectral information is crucial.
Address Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA; brett.seymoure(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ZSL Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2306
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Author Donners, M.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Groenendijk, D.; van Langevelde, F.; Bikker, J.W.; Longcore, T.; Veenendaal, E.
Title Colors of attraction: Modeling insect flight to light behavior Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 434-440
Keywords (up) Animals; ecology; Lighting
Abstract Light sources attract nocturnal flying insects, but some lamps attract more insects than others. The relation between the properties of a light source and the number of attracted insects is, however, poorly understood. We developed a model to quantify the attractiveness of light sources based on the spectral output. This model is fitted using data from field experiments that compare a large number of different light sources. We validated this model using two additional datasets, one for all insects and one excluding the numerous Diptera. Our model facilitates the development and application of light sources that attract fewer insects without the need for extensive field tests and it can be used to correct for spectral composition when formulating hypotheses on the ecological impact of artificial light. In addition, we present a tool allowing the conversion of the spectral output of light sources to their relative insect attraction based on this model.
Address Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29944198 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1944
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A.
Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307
Keywords (up) Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review
Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841
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Author Rosenberg, Y.; Doniger, T.; Levy, O.
Title Sustainability of coral reefs are affected by ecological light pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Communications Biology Abbreviated Journal Commun Biol
Volume 2 Issue Pages 289
Keywords (up) Animals; Ecology; Molecular ecology; Urban ecology
Abstract As human populations grow and lighting technologies improve, artificial light gradually alters natural cycles of light and dark that have been consistent over long periods of geological and evolutionary time. While considerable ecological implications of artificial light have been identified in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats, knowledge about the physiological and molecular effects of light pollution is vague. To determine if ecological light pollution (ELP) impacts coral biological processes, we characterized the transcriptome of the coral Acropora eurystoma under two different light regimes: control conditions and treatment with light at night. Here we show that corals exposed to ELP have approximately 25 times more differentially expressed genes that regulate cell cycle, cell proliferation, cell growth, protein synthesis and display changes in photo physiology. The finding of this work confirms that ELP acts as a chronic disturbance that may impact the future of coral reefs.
Address Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 52900 Israel.0000 0004 1937 0503grid.22098.31
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2399-3642 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31396569; PMCID:PMC6683144 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2608
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Author Koen, E.L.; Minnaar, C.; Roever, C.L.; Boyles, J.G.
Title Emerging threat of the 21(st) century lightscape to global biodiversity Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 24 Issue 6 Pages 2315-2324
Keywords (up) Animals; Ecology; Remote Sensing
Abstract Over the last century the temporal and spatial distribution of light on Earth has been drastically altered by human activity. Despite mounting evidence of detrimental effects of light pollution on organisms and their trophic interactions, the extent to which light pollution threatens biodiversity on a global scale remains unclear. We assessed the spatial extent and magnitude of light encroachment by measuring change in the extent of light using satellite imagery from 1992 to 2012 relative to species richness for terrestrial and freshwater mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The encroachment of light into previously dark areas was consistently high, often doubling, in areas of high species richness for all four groups. This pattern persisted for nocturnal groups (e.g., bats, owls, and geckos) and species considered vulnerable to extinction. Areas with high species richness and large increases in light extent were clustered within newly industrialized regions where expansion of light is likely to continue unabated unless we act to conserve remaining darkness. Implementing change at a global scale requires global public, and therefore scientific, support. Here, we offer substantial evidence that light extent is increasing where biodiversity is high, representing an emerging threat to global biodiversity requiring immediate attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Center for Ecology and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, 62901, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29575356 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1833
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