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Author Grunst, M.L.; Raap, T.; Grunst, A.S.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title Artificial light at night does not affect telomere shortening in a developing free-living songbird: A field experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly pervasive anthropogenic disturbance factor. ALAN can seriously disrupt physiological systems that follow circadian rhythms, and may be particularly influential early in life, when developmental trajectories are sensitive to stressful conditions. Using great tits (Parus major) as a model species, we experimentally examined how ALAN affects physiological stress in developing nestlings. We used a repeated-measure design to assess effects of ALAN on telomere shortening, body mass, tarsus length and body condition. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that protect chromosomes from damage and malfunction. Early-life telomere shortening can be accelerated by environmental stressors, and has been linked to later-life declines in survival and reproduction. We also assayed nitric oxide, as an additional metric of physiological stress, and determined fledging success. Change in body condition between day 8 and 15 differed according to treatment. Nestlings exposed to ALAN displayed a trend towards a decline in condition, whereas control nestlings displayed a trend towards increased condition. This pattern was driven by a greater increase in tarsus length relative to mass in nestlings exposed to ALAN. Nestlings in poorer condition and nestlings that were smaller than their nest mates had shorter telomeres. However, exposure to ALAN was unrelated to telomere shortening, and also had no effect on nitric oxide concentrations or fledging success. Thus, exposure to ALAN may not have led to sufficient stress to induce telomere shortening. Indeed, plasticity in other physiological systems could allow nestlings to maintain telomere length despite moderate stress. Alternatively, the cascade of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light exposure may have no net effect on telomere dynamics.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2161
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Author Sanotra, G.S.; Lund, J.D.; Vestergaard, K.S.
Title Influence of light-dark schedules and stocking density on behaviour, risk of leg problems and occurrence of chronic fear in broilers Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication British Poultry Science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci
Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 344-354
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract 1. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the effect of light-dark schedules on the walking ability, the risk of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) as well as the duration of tonic immobility (TI) reactions in commercial broiler flocks and (2) the effect of a daily dark period and reduced density on the behaviour of broiler chickens. 2. Experiment 1. Group 1 had a 2 to 8 h daily dark period from 2 to 26 d of age (light-dark programme A) at a stocking density of 28.4 chicks/m2. Group 2 had 8 h of darkness daily from 2 to 38 d of age (light-dark programme B) at 24 chicks/m2. The control group had 24 h continuous light at 28.4 chicks/m2. 3. Experiment 2. Behaviour was studied with and without a daily 8 h dark period and at high (30 chicks/m2) and low (18 chicks/m2) stocking densities. 4. Programme B reduced the prevalence of impaired walking ability, corresponding to gait score > 2, when compared with controls. The effect on walking ability corresponding to gait score > 0 approached significance. 5. Both light-dark programmes reduced the occurrence of TD. Programme B (combined with reduced stocking density), however, had the greater effect. 6. Both light-dark programmes reduced the duration of TI, compared with controls (mean = 426 s) Programme B resulted in a larger reduction (alpha = -156.9 s) than programme A (alpha = -117.0). 7. The proportions of chicks drinking, eating, pecking, scratching, standing and performing vertical wing-shakes increased--both when the 8 h dark period and the reduced stocking density were applied separately and in combination (experiment 2). 8. For all behaviours, except standing, the effect of the dark period was largest in broilers kept at the high stocking density (d 40).
Address Department of Animal Science and Animal Health, Division of Ethology and Health, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Groennegaardsvej 8, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark. sgs@kvl.dk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12195793 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2169
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Author Manríquez, P.H.; Jara, M.E.; Diaz, M.I.; Quijón, P.A.; Widdicombe, S.; Pulgar, J.; Manríquez, K.; Quintanilla-Ahumada, D.; Duarte, C.
Title Artificial light pollution influences behavioral and physiological traits in a keystone predator species, Concholepas concholepas Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an increasing global problem that, despite being widely recognized in terrestrial systems, has been studied much less in marine habitats. In this study we investigated the effect of ALAN on behavioral and physiological traits of Concholepas concholepas, an important keystone species of the south-eastern Pacific coast. We used juveniles collected in intertidal habitats that had not previously been exposed to ALAN. In the laboratory we exposed them to two treatments: darkness and white LED (Lighting Emitting Diodes) to test for the impacts of ALAN on prey-searching behavior, self-righting time and metabolism. In the field, the distribution of juveniles was observed during daylight-hours to determine whether C. concholepas preferred shaded or illuminated microhabitats. Moreover, we compared the abundance of juveniles collected during day- and night-time hours. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that juveniles of C. concholepas seek out and choose their prey more efficiently in darkened areas. White LED illuminated conditions increased righting times and metabolism. Field surveys indicated that, during daylight hours, juveniles were more abundant in shaded micro-habitats than in illuminated ones. However, during darkness hours, individuals were not seen to aggregate in any particular microhabitats. We conclude that the exposure to ALAN might disrupt important behavioral and physiological traits of small juveniles in this species which, as a mechanism to avoid visual predators, are mainly active at night. It follows that ALAN in coastal areas might modify the entire community structure of intertidal habitats by altering the behavior of this keystone species.
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ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2173
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Author Caorsi, V.; Sprau, P.; Zollinger, S.A.; Brumm, H.
Title Nocturnal resting behaviour in urban great tits and its relation to anthropogenic disturbance and microclimate Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol
Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The ecological novelty of urbanisation poses many challenges to animals. We investigated whether anthropogenic disturbance (artificial light at night and noise) and abiotic factors in cities (temperature and humidity) predict nocturnal activity and rest in free-living urban great tits (Parus major). Our study is the first to relate nocturnal rest in wild birds to levels of noise pollution during the night, an issue that has been shown to be particularly damaging to human health. Unlike previous work on nocturnal behaviour of urban birds, we considered the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance and urban microclimate to acknowledge that the umwelt of an animal is composed of multiple environmental variables. Using infrared cameras, we observed the nocturnal resting behaviour as a proxy for sleep in 17 birds in nest boxes deployed across the city of Munich, Germany. Although we found marked differences in resting behaviour between individuals, this variation was not related to the measured environmental factors. This finding contrasts earlier studies that reported nocturnal resting behaviour of birds to vary with temperature and light exposure. Although we did not find evidence that urban environmental factors disrupt resting behaviour in great tits, their sleep might still be impaired by the anthropogenic disturbances. To elucidate this issue, further studies are necessary that, for instance, measure brain activity.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2185
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Author Desouhant, E.; Gomes, E.; Mondy, N.; Amat, I.
Title Mechanistic, ecological, and evolutionary consequences of artificial light at night for insects: review and prospective Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Abbreviated Journal Entomol Exp Appl
Volume 167 Issue 1 Pages 37-58
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The alternation of light and dark periods on a daily or seasonal time scale is of utmost importance for the synchronization of physiological and behavioral processes in the environment. For the last 2 decades, artificial light at night (ALAN) has strongly increased worldwide, disrupting the photoperiod and its related physiological processes, and impacting the survival and reproduction of wild animals. ALAN is now considered as a major concern for biodiversity and human health. Here, we present why insects are relevant biological models to investigate the impact of ALAN. First the phenotypic responses to ALAN and their underpinning mechanisms are reviewed. The consequences for population dynamics, and the community composition and functioning are described in the second part. Because ALAN provides new and widespread selective pressure, we inventory evolutionary changes in response to this anthropogenic change. Finally, we identify promising future avenues, focusing on the necessity of understanding evolutionary processes that could help stakeholders consider darkness as a resource to preserve biodiversity as well as numerous ecosystem services in which insects are involved.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-8703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2195
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