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Author Shier, D.M.; Bird, A.K.; Wang, T.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of artificial light at night on the foraging behavior of an endangered nocturnal mammal Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Modification of nighttime light levels by artificial illumination (artificial light at night; ALAN) is a rapidly increasing form of human disturbance that affects natural environments worldwide. Light in natural environments influences a variety of physiological and ecological processes directly and indirectly and, as a result, the effects of light pollution on species, communities and ecosystems are emerging as significant. Small prey species may be particularly susceptible to ALAN as it makes them more conspicuous and thus more vulnerable to predation by visually oriented predators. Understanding the effects of disturbance like ALAN is especially important for threatened or endangered species as impacts have the potential to impede recovery, but due to low population numbers inherent to at-risk species, disturbance is rarely studied. The endangered Stephens’ kangaroo rat (SKR), Dipodomys stephensi, is a nocturnal rodent threatened by habitat destruction from urban expansion. The degree to which ALAN impacts their recovery is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of ALAN on SKR foraging decisions across a gradient of light intensity for two types of ALAN, flood and bug lights (756 vs 300 lumen, respectfully) during full and new moon conditions. We found that ALAN decreased probability of resource patch depletion compared to controls. Moreover, lunar illumination, distance from the light source and light type interacted to alter SKR foraging. Under the new moon, SKR were consistently more likely to deplete patches under control conditions, but there was an increasing probability of patch depletion with distance from the source of artificial light. The full moon dampened SKR foraging activity and the effect of artificial lights. Our study underscores that ALAN reduces habitat suitability, and raises the possibility that ALAN may impede the recovery of at-risk nocturnal rodents.  
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  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2885  
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Author Cisse, Y.M.; Russart, K.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to dim light at night prior to conception attenuates offspring innate immune responses Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages e0231140  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Functional circadian timekeeping is necessary for homeostatic control of the immune system and appropriate immune responsiveness. Disruption of natural light-dark cycles, through light at night (LAN), impairs innate and adaptive immune responses in nocturnal rodents. These altered immune responses are associated with disrupted endogenous gene transcriptional and endocrine cycles. However, few studies have addressed the multigenerational consequences of systemic circadian rhythm disruption. We hypothesized that parental exposure to dim LAN (dLAN) would alter innate immune and sickness responses to an endotoxin challenge in adult offspring gestated and reared in dark nights. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 8 weeks, then paired, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Maternal exposure to dLAN prior to conception impaired febrile responses and increased splenic il-1 production in response to LPS in male offspring. Paternal pre-conception dLAN dampened offspring tnf-alpha expression in the hypothalamus, reduced serum bactericidal capacity, and dark phase locomotor activity. These changes occurred despite offspring being conceived, gestated, and reared under standard dark night conditions. Overall, these data suggest that dLAN has intergenerational effects on innate immunity and sickness responses.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32302341 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2887  
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Author Kerbiriou, C.; Barré, K.; Mariton, L.; Pauwels, J.; Zissis, G.; Robert, A.; Le Viol, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Switching LPS to LED Streetlight May Dramatically Reduce Activity and Foraging of Bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Diversity Abbreviated Journal Diversity  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 165  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is considered a major threat to biodiversity, especially for nocturnal species, as it reduces habitat availability, quality, and functionality. Since the recent evolution in light technologies in improving luminous efficacy, developed countries are experiencing a renewal of their lighting equipment that reaches its end-of-life, from conventional lighting technologies to light emitting diodes (LEDs). Despite potential cascading impacts of such a shift on nocturnal fauna, few studies have so far dealt with the impact of the renewal of street lighting by new technologies. Specifically, only one study, by Rowse et al.2016, examined the effects of switching from widely used low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps to LEDs, using bats as biological models. This study was based on a before-after-control-impact paired design (BACIP) at 12 pairs in the UK, each including one control and one experimental streetlight. If Rowse et al. 2016 showed no effect of switching to LEDs streetlights on bat activity, the effects of respective changes in light intensity and spectrum were not disentangled when testing switch effects. Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of their data to include these covariates in statistical models with the aim of disentangling the relative effects of these light characteristics. Our re-analysis clearly indicates that the switches in spectrum and in intensity with replacement of LPS with LED lamps have significant additive and interactive effects, on bat activity. We also show that bat activity and buzz ratio decrease with increasing LED intensity while an opposite effect is observed with LPS lamps. Hence, the loss or the gain in bat activity when lamp types, i.e., spectrum, are switched strongly depends on the initial and new lamp intensities. Our results stress the need to consider simultaneously the effects of changes in the different lights characteristics when street lighting changes. Because switches from LPS to LED lamps can lead to an increase in light intensity, such technological changes may involve a reduction of bat activity in numerous cases, especially at high LED intensities. Since we are currently at an important crossroad in lighting management, we recommend to limit LED intensity and improve its spectral composition toward warmer colors to limit potential deleterious impacts on bat activity.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-2818 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2892  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zhao, X.; Zhang M.; Che, X.; Zou, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Blue light attracts nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Light pollution is increasing and artificial light sources have great impacts on animals. For migrating birds, collisions caused by artificial light pollution are a significant source of mortality. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that birds have different visual sensitivities to different colors of light, but few field experiments have compared birds’ responses to light of different wavelengths. We used 3 monochromatic lights (red, green, and blue) and polychromatic yellow light to study the impact of wavelength on phototaxis at 2 gathering sites of nocturnally migrating birds in Southwest China. For both sites, short-wavelength blue light caused the strongest phototactic response. In contrast, birds were rarely attracted to long-wavelength red light. The attractive effect of blue light was greatest during nights with fog and headwinds. As rapid urbanization and industrialization cause an increase in artificial light, we suggest that switching to longer wavelength lights is a convenient and economically effective way to reduce bird collisions.

摘要

目前地球上光污染日益严重,五颜六色的人工光源对生态系统造成了很大影响。就鸟类而言,在世界各地已发生了很多鸟类撞击人工光源的事件。实验室研究表明,鸟类对不同颜色的光有不同的视觉敏感度,但很少有野外实验比较鸟类对不同波长光的反应。我们在中国西南地区的两个夜间候鸟迁徙聚集点使用三种单色光(红、绿、蓝)和一种复合光(黄),研究了光波长对的候鸟趋光性的影响。研究表明,短波长的蓝光引起了候鸟最强烈的趋光性反应。相反,鸟类很少被长波长的红光所吸引。特别是在有雾和逆风的夜晚,蓝光的吸引力最大。由于快速的城市化和工业化导致人造光的增加,我们认为使用长波光是一个减少鸟类碰撞光源的方便和经济有效的方式。
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2896  
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Author Schottstädt, D. url  openurl
  Title Erfahrungen zur Anlockwirkung unterschiedlicher künstlicher Lichtquellen auf Nachtfalter (Lepidoptera: Macroheterocera) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Sächsische Entomologische Zeitschrift Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 120-140  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Light capture is the most effective method for the qualitative and quantitative collection of moths. This paper gives a brief overview of light traps installations, bulbs and their light spectrum, especially with respect to the ultraviolet radiation. In field ex-periments, various bulbs were used to study for their attractiveness to moths. In practical application, it should be noted that moths fly against the wind towards artificial light sources, they should be positioned so that the wind blows from the light source towards the biotope. For the manual light capture, almost all featured bulbs are suitable. If species of a larger catchment area are to be collected, higher-performance bulbs are recommend-ed, to attract more species and subjects. However, this could lead to more restlessness at the catchment, where considerable proportion of moths would only settle and found around the perimeter of the catchment area. For biotope-related light capture, stand-ardized systems with fluorescent tubes or more recently with LEDs are recommended, to enable comparison of studies. If comparison is not required, energy-saving lamps are recommended instead, because they have a higher light density with the same number of lumens, which entails a higher attracting effect. Mercury vapor and energy saving lamps have almost identical spectrum, but differ in power and its associated radiant energy. When these bulbs are used simultaneously, moths always fly towards the light source with the higher radiant energy. Therefore, it is not necessary to operate an energy-saving lamp or fluorescent tube next to a high-pressure lamp. Likewise, with the combination of su-peractinic, black light fluorescent tubes and energy-saving lamps. The superactinic lamp has a much higher radiation energy in the ultraviolet range and also has wavelengths in the blue range, while the black light lamp emits only certain wavelengths in the UV range.

Zusammenfassung.Der Lichtfang ist die effektivste Methode zur qualitativen und quantitativen Erfassung von Nachtfaltern. Es wird ein kurzer Überblick über Lichtfangan-lagen, Leuchtmittel und deren Lichtspektren, insbesondere mit Bezug auf die ultraviolette Strahlung gegeben. In Feldversuchen wurden verschiedene Leuchtmittel auf ihre Anlock-wirkung auf Nachtfalter verwendet. Im praktischen Einsatz ist dabei zu beachten, dass Nachtfalter gegen den Wind künstliche Lichtquellen anfliegen, so dass diese so aufgestellt werden sollten, dass der Wind vom Licht in den Biotop weht. Für den manuellen Lichtfang sind fast alle vorgestellten Leuchtmittel geeignet. Sollen die Arten eines größeren Einzugs-gebietes erfasst werden, sind leistungsstärkere Leuchtmittel zu empfehlen, mit denen etwas mehr Arten und sehr viel mehr Individuen angelockt werden. Dies geht aber mit mehr Unruhe an der Anlage einher und ein beträchtlicher Anteil der Falter setzt sich in der Umgebung der Anlage nieder, so dass die Umgebung nach Faltern abzusuchen ist. Für den biotopbezogenen Lichtfang sind standardisierte Anlagen mit Leuchtstoffröhren bzw. neuerdings mit LEDs zu empfehlen, um die eigenen Untersuchungen mit anderen vergleichen zu können. Ist dies nicht nötig, sind stattdessen Energiesparlampen empfe-hlenswert, da diese eine höhere Lichtdichte bei gleicher Lumenzahl aufweisen, was eine höhere Anlockwirkung mit sich bringt. Quecksilberdampf- und Energiesparlampen weisen fast identische Spektren auf, unterscheiden sich aber in der Leistung und der damit ver-bundenen Strahlungsenergie. Bei gleichzeitiger Verwendung dieser Leuchtmittel fliegen Nachtfalter immer die Lichtquelle mit der höheren Strahlungsenergie an. Deshalb ist es nicht erforderlich, neben einer Hochdrucklampe eine Energiesparlampe oder Leuchtst-offröhre zu betreiben. Ähnlich verhält es sich mit der Kombination superaktinischer und Schwarzlicht-Leuchtstoffröhren und Energiesparlampen. Die superaktinische Lampe hat eine viel höhere Strahlungsenergie im ultravioletten Bereich und besitzt auch Wellenlän-gen im blauen Bereich, während die Schwarzlichtlampe nur im UV-Bereich bestimmte Wellenlängen emittiert.
 
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language German Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2902  
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