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Author Marín-Gómez, O.H.; García-Arroyo, M.; Sánchez-Sarria, C.E.; Sosa-López, J.R.; Santiago-Alarcon, D.; MacGregor-Fors, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nightlife in the city: drivers of the occurrence and vocal activity of a tropical owl Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Avian Research Abbreviated Journal Avian Res  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages in press  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Background

Cities differ from non-urban environments by the intensity, scale, and extent of anthropogenic pressures, which can drive the occurrence, physiology, and behavior of the organisms thriving in these settings. Traits as green cover often predict the occurrence patterns of bird species in urban areas. Yet, anthropogenic noise and artificial light at night (ALAN) could also limit the presence and disrupt the behavior of birds. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge about the influence of urbanization through noise and light pollution on nocturnal bird species ecology. In this study, we assessed the role of green cover, noise, and light pollution on the occurrence and vocal activity of the Mottled Owl (Ciccaba virgata) in the city of Xalapa (Mexico).

Methods

We obtained soundscape recordings in 61 independent sites scattered across the city of Xalapa using autonomous recording units. We performed a semi-automated acoustic analysis of the recordings, corroborating all Mottled Owl vocalizations. We calculated two measures of anthropogenic noise at each study site: daily noise (during 24 h) and masking noise (mean noise amplitude at night per site that could mask the owl’s vocalizations). We further performed generalized linear models to relate green cover, ALAN, daily noise, and masking noise in relation to the owl’s occurrence (i.e., detected, undetected). We also ran linear models to assess relationships among the beginning and ending of vocal activity with ALAN, and with the anthropogenic and masking noise levels at the moment of which vocalizations were emitted. Finally, we explored variations of the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl measured as vocalization rate across time.

Results

The presence of Mottled Owls increased with the size of green cover and decreased with increases in both artificial light at night and noise levels. At the temporal scale, green cover was positively related with the ending of the owl’s vocal activity, while daily noise and ALAN levels were not related to the timing and vocal output (i.e., number of vocalizations). Furthermore, the Mottled Owl showed a marked peak of vocal activity before dawn than after dusk. Although anthropogenic noise levels varied significantly across the assessed time, we did not find an association between high vocal output during time periods with lower noise levels.

Conclusions

Spatially, green cover area was positively related with the presence of the Mottled Owl in Xalapa, while high noise and light pollution were related to its absence. At a temporal scale, daily noise and ALAN levels were not related with the timing and vocal output. This suggests that instead of environmental factors, behavioral contexts such as territoriality and mate interactions could drive the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl. Further studies need to incorporate a wider seasonal scale in order to explore the variation of different vocalizations of this species in relation to environmental and biological factors.
 
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  ISSN 2053-7166 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2912  
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Author Riedel, C.S.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.; Hannibal, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Altered light induced EGR1 expression in the SCN of PACAP deficient mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 15 Issue 5 Pages e0232748  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract The brain's biological clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and generates circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. The circadian clock needs daily adjustment by light to stay synchronized (entrained) with the astronomical 24 h light/dark cycle. Light entrainment occurs via melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) and two neurotransmitters of the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), PACAP and glutamate, which transmit light information to the SCN neurons. In SCN neurons, light signaling involves the immediate-early genes Fos, Egr1 and the clock genes Per1 and Per2. In this study, we used PACAP deficient mice to evaluate PACAP's role in light induced gene expression of EGR1 in SCN neurons during early (ZT17) and late (ZT23) subjective night at high (300 lux) and low (10 lux) white light exposure. We found significantly lower levels of both EGR1 mRNA and protein in the SCN in PACAP deficient mice compared to wild type mice at early subjective night (ZT17) exposed to low but not high light intensity. No difference was found between the two genotypes at late night (ZT23) at neither light intensities. In conclusion, light mediated EGR1 induction in SCN neurons at early night at low light intensities is dependent of PACAP signaling. A role of PACAP in shaping synaptic plasticity during light stimulation at night is discussed.  
  Address Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen NV, Denmark  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32379800; PMCID:PMC7205239 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2915  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lieske, D.J.; Tranquilla, L.M.F.; Ronconi, R.A.; Abbott, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title “Seas of risk”: Assessing the threats to colonial-nesting seabirds in Eastern Canada Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Marine Policy Abbreviated Journal Marine Policy  
  Volume 115 Issue Pages 103863  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract This study presents the results of the first broad-scale, spatial cumulative impact analysis (SCIA) conducted for colonial-nesting seabirds at-sea in eastern Canada. Species distribution models, based on at-sea tracking data for thirteen species/groups of seabirds (n = 520 individuals), were applied to over 5000 species-specific colonies to map relative abundance patterns across the entire region. This information was combined with distributional data for a number of key anthropogenic threats to quantify exposure to fisheries, light and ship-source oil pollution, and marine traffic. As a final step, information about species-specific sensitivity to each threat was integrated to compute region-wide cumulative risk.

The data products permit the visualization of the interaction between species and threats, and confirm that large portions of the coastal zones of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, as well as the Grand Banks shelf break, constitute areas where breeding seabirds experience the highest potential impact. The cumulative risk maps revealed that species which were either widespread throughout coastal areas (e.g., gulls), or capable of foraging long distance (Leach's Storm-Petrel), were most at risk. Cumulative risk maps help identify appropriate and potentially effective management and conservation actions, and are of value to federal regulators responsible for managing cumulative effects as part of the new Canadian Impact Assessment Act. They also can assist marine planners achieve the Aichi marine conservation targets as specified by the Convention on Biodiversity. By filling a knowledge gap for a large potion of the northwest Atlantic, these results help to counter the “shifting baselines syndrome”.
 
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  ISSN 0308597X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2941  
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Author Baekelandt, S.; Milla, S.; Cornet, V.; Flamion, E.; Ledore, Y.; Redivo, B.; Antipine, S.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Houndji, A.; El Kertaoui, N.; Kestemont, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Seasonal simulated photoperiods influence melatonin release and immune markers of pike perch Sander lucioperca Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 2650  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Melatonin is considered as the time-keeping hormone acting on important physiological functions of teleosts. While the influence of melatonin on reproduction and development is well described, its potential role on immune functions has little been considered. In order to better define an immune modulation by the melatonin hormone, we hypothesized that natural variations of photoperiod and subsequent changes in melatonin release profile may act on immune status of pikeperch. Therefore, we investigated during 70 days the effects of two photoperiod regimes simulating the fall and spring in western Europe, on pikeperch physiological and immune responses. Samples were collected at 04:00 and 15:00 at days 1, 37 and 70. Growth, plasma melatonin levels, innate immune markers and expression of immune-relevant genes in head kidney tissue were assessed. While growth and stress level were not affected by the seasonal simulated photoperiods, nocturnal levels of plasma melatonin were photoperiod-dependent. Innate immune markers, including lysozyme, complement, peroxidase and phagocytic activities, were stimulated by the fall-simulated photoperiod and a significant correlation was made with plasma melatonin. In addition to bring the first evidence of changes in fish immunocompetence related to photoperiod, our results provide an additional indication supporting the immunomodulatory action of melatonin in teleosts.  
  Address Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), Institute of Life, Earth & Environment, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, Namur, B-5000, Belgium  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32060347; PMCID:PMC7021833 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2942  
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Author Amano, T.; Ripperger, J.A.; Albrecht, U. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Changing the light schedule in late pregnancy alters birth timing in mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Theriogenology Abbreviated Journal Theriogenology  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract In rats, birth timing is affected by changes in the light schedule until the middle of the pregnancy period. This phenomenon can be used to control birth timing in the animal industry and/or clinical fields. However, changes in the light schedule until the middle of the pregnancy period can damage the fetus by affecting the development of the major organs. Thus, we compared birth timing in mice kept under a 12-h light/12-h darkness schedule (L/D) throughout pregnancy with that of mice kept under a light schedule that changed from L/D to constant light (L/L) or constant darkness (D/D) from day 17.5 of pregnancy, the latter phase of the pregnancy period. On average, the pregnancy period was longer in D/D mice (19.9 days) than L/L or L/D mice (19.5 and 19.3 days, respectively, P < 0.05), confirming that light schedule affects birth timing. The average number of newborns was the same in L/L, L/D, and D/D mice (7.5, 7.8, and 7.9, respectively), but the average newborn weight of L/L mice (1.3 g) was lower than that of L/D and D/D mice (both 1.4 g, P < 0.05), indicating that constant light has detrimental effects on fetus growth. However, the percentage of dead newborns was the same between L/L, L/D, and D/D mice (11.1, 10.6, and 3.6%, respectively). The serum progesterone level on day 18.5 of pregnancy in L/D mice was 42.8 ng/ml, lower (P < 0.05) than that of D/D mice (65.3 ng/ml), suggesting that light schedule affects luteolysis. The average pregnancy period of mice lacking a circadian clock kept under D/D conditions from day 17.5 of pregnancy (KO D/D) (20.3 days) was delayed compared with wild-type (WT) D/D mice (P < 0.05). However, the average number of newborns, percentage of births with dead pups, and weight per newborn of KO D/D mice (7.6, 3.6%, and 1.4 g, respectively) were the same as WT mice kept under D/D conditions. A direct effect of the circadian clock on the mechanism(s) regulating birth timing was questionable, as the lighter average weight per KO fetus (0.6 g) versus WT fetus (0.7 g) on day 17.5 of pregnancy might have caused the delay in birth. The range of birth timing in KO D/D mice was the same as that of WT D/D mice, indicating that the circadian clock does not concentrate births at one time.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0093691X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2943  
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