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Author Brauckhoff, M.; Wahlberg, M.; Haga, J.Å.R.; Karlsen, H.E.; Wilson, M.
Title Embracing Their Prey at That Dark Hour: Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Can Hunt in Nighttime Light Conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Frontiers in Physiology Abbreviated Journal Front. Physiol.
Volume 11 Issue Pages in press
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Cuttlefish are highly efficient predators, which strongly rely on their anterior binocular visual field for hunting and prey capture. Their complex eyes possess adaptations for low light conditions. Recently, it was discovered that they display camouflaging behavior at night, perhaps to avoid detection by predators, or to increase their nighttime hunting success. This raises the question whether cuttlefish are capable of foraging during nighttime. In the present study, prey capture of the common cuttlefish (Sepiaofficinalis) was filmed with a high-speed video camera in different light conditions.Experiments were performed in daylight and with near-infrared light sources in two simulated nightlight conditions, as well as in darkness. The body of the common cuttlefish maintained a velocity of less than 0.1 m/s during prey capture, while the tentacles during the seizing phase reached velocities of up to 2.5 m/s and accelerations reached more than 450 m/s2 for single individuals. There was no significant difference between the day and nighttime trials, respectively. In complete darkness, the common cuttlefish was unable to catch any prey. Our results show that the common cuttlefish are capable of catching prey during day- and nighttime light conditions. The common cuttlefish employ similar sensory motor systems and prey capturing techniques during both day- and nighttime conditions.
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ISSN 1664-042X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3021
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Author Bolliger, J.; Hennet, T.; Wermelinger, B.; Bösch, R.; Pazur, R.; Blum, S.; Haller, J.; Obrist, M.K.
Title Effects of traffic-regulated street lighting on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Basic and Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal Basic and Applied Ecology
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract New technological developments modulate the light levels of LED street luminaires according to traffic volumes: light levels are increased given traffic and reduced in its absence. Such dimming of street lights reduces the level of artificial light at night (ALAN) and may thus contribute to mitigate light pollution. To quantify the impact of traffic-driven dimming of street lights on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity in comparison to full light (i.e., dimming functions of luminaires switched off), we mounted 20 insect flight-interception traps and ten batloggers on street light poles along two dimmable street light sections. Insect abundance and bat activity were measured alternately with one week of full street lighting followed by a week with light levels modulated by traffic volumes. In total, 16 dimmed and 16 full-light days were investigated. Overall, traffic-driven dimming reduced light levels by 35%. Weather conditions (warm, dry nights) were the main drivers of insect abundance and bat activity, but traffic-driven dimming resulted in lower numbers of insects caught and reduced bat activity. Among insect groups, Heteroptera benefited most from dimming. For bats, urban exploiters (Pipistrellus spp.) benefited from increased availability of prey at brightly lit street lights, while less frequent species (Myotis spp.) did not benefit from street lighting. We conclude that street light dimming technology may contribute to mitigate negative effects of ALAN on nocturnal organisms, although the measure may not be efficient enough to support light-sensitive and threatened species.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1439-1791 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3027
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Author Ayalon, I.; de Barros Marangoni, L.F.; Benichou, J.I.C.; Avisar, D.; Levy, O.
Title Red Sea corals under Artificial Light Pollution at Night (ALAN) undergo oxidative stress and photosynthetic impairment Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 25 Issue 12 Pages 4194-4207
Keywords (up) Animals; *Anthozoa; Coral Reefs; Ecosystem; Indian Ocean; Oxidative Stress; Photosynthesis; Alan; Ros; corals; light pollution; photosynthesis; physiology
Abstract Coral reefs represent the most diverse marine ecosystem on the planet, yet they are undergoing an unprecedented decline due to a combination of increasing global and local stressors. Despite the wealth of research investigating these stressors, Artificial Light Pollution at Night (ALAN) or “ecological light pollution” represents an emerging threat that has received little attention in the context of coral reefs, despite the potential of disrupting the chronobiology, physiology, behavior, and other biological processes of coral reef organisms. Scleractinian corals, the framework builders of coral reefs, depend on lunar illumination cues to synchronize their biological rhythms such as behavior, reproduction and physiology. While, light pollution (POL) may mask and lead de-synchronization of these biological rhythms process. To reveal if ALAN impacts coral physiology, we have studied two coral species, Acropora eurystoma and Pocillopora damicornis, from the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba, Red Sea, which is undergoing urban development that has led to severe POL at night. Our two experimental design data revealed that corals exposed to ALAN face an oxidative stress condition, show lower photosynthesis performances measured by electron transport rate (ETR), as well as changes in chlorophyll and algae density parameters. Testing different lights such as Blue LED and White LED spectrum showed more extreme impact in comparison to Yellow LEDs on coral physiology. The finding of this work sheds light on the emerging threat of POL and the impacts on the biology and ecology of Scleractinian corals, and will help to formulate specific management implementations to mitigate its potentially harmful impacts.
Address Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31512309; PMCID:PMC6900201 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2809
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Author Straka,T. M., Wolf, M., Gras, P., Buchholz, S., & Voigt, C. C.
Title Tree Cover Mediates the Effect of Artificial Light on Urban Bats Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue Pages 91
Keywords (up) Animals; ALAN; bats; canopy cover; chiroptera; light-emitting diodes; LED; trees; Ultraviolet; urban
Abstract With urban areas growing worldwide, so does artificial light at night (ALAN) which negatively affects many nocturnal animals, including bats. The response of bats to ALAN ranges from some opportunistic species taking advantage of insect aggregations around street lamps, particularly those emitting ultraviolet (UV) light, to others avoiding lit areas at all. Tree cover has been suggested to mitigate the negative effects of ALAN on bats by shielding areas against light scatter. Here, we investigated the effect of tree cover on the relationship between ALAN and bats in Berlin, Germany. In particular, we asked if this interaction varies with the UV light spectrum of street lamps and also across urban bat species. We expected trees next to street lamps to block ALAN, making the adjacent habitat more suitable for all species, irrespective of the wavelength spectrum of the light source. Additionally, we expected UV emitting lights next to trees to attract insects and thus, opportunistic bats. In summer 2017, we recorded bat activity at 22 green open spaces in Berlin using automated ultrasonic detectors. We analyzed bat activity patterns and landscape variables (number of street lamps with and without UV light emission, an estimate of light pollution, and tree cover density around each recording site within different spatial scales) using generalized linear mixed-effects models with a negative binomial distribution. We found a species-specific response of bats to street lamps with and without UV light, providing a more detailed picture of ALAN impacts than simply total light radiance. Moreover, we found that dense tree cover dampened the negative effect of street lamps without UV for open-space foraging bats of the genera Nyctalus, Eptesicus, and Vespertilio, yet it amplified the already existing negative or positive effect of street lamps with or without UV on Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, and Myotis spp. Our study underpins the importance of minimizing artificial light at night close to vegetation, particularly for bats adapted to spatial complexity in the environment (i.e., clutter-adapted species), and to increase dense vegetation in urban landscape to provide, besides roosting opportunities, protection against ALAN for open-space foraging bats in city landscapes.
Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2302
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Author Bumgarner, J.R.; Walker, W.H. 2nd; Liu, J.A.; Walton, J.C.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Dim light at night exposure induces cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in male mice Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals; Allodynia; Hyperalgesia; Light at Night; Neuroinflammation; Opioid; Pain
Abstract The growing presence of artificial lighting across the globe presents a number of challenges to human and ecological health despite its societal benefits. Exposure to artificial light at night, a seemingly innocuous aspect of modern life, disrupts behavior and physiological functions. Specifically, light at night induces neuroinflammation, which is implicated in neuropathic and nociceptive pain states, including hyperalgesia and allodynia. Because of its influence on neuroinflammation, we investigated the effects of dim light at night exposure on pain responsiveness in male mice. In this study, mice exposed to four days of dim (5 lux) light at night exhibited cold hyperalgesia. Further, after 28 days of exposure, mice exhibited both cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. No heat/hot hyperalgesia was observed in this experiment. Altered nociception in mice exposed to dim light at night was concurrent with upregulated interleukin-6 and nerve growth factor mRNA expression in the medulla and elevated mu-opioid receptor mRNA expression in the periaqueductal gray region of the brain. The current results support the relationship between disrupted circadian rhythms and altered pain sensitivity. In summary, we observed that dim light at night induces cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, potentially through elevated central neuroinflammation and dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 26506 United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-4522 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32201267 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2864
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