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Author Rydell, J.; Eklöf, J.; Sánchez-Navarro, S.
Title Age of enlightenment: long-term effects of outdoor aesthetic lights on bats in churches Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.
Volume 4 Issue 8 Pages 161077
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract We surveyed 110 country churches in south-western Sweden for presence of brown long-eared bats Plecotus auritus in summer 2016 by visual inspection and/or evening emergence counts. Each church was also classified according to the presence and amount of aesthetic directional lights (flood-lights) aimed on its walls and tower from the outside. Sixty-one of the churches had previously been surveyed by one of us (J.R.) between 1980 and 1990, before lights were installed on Swedish churches, using the same methods. Churches with bat colonies had decreased significantly in frequency from 61% in 1980s to 38% by 2016. All abandoned churches had been fitted with flood-lights in the period between the two surveys. The loss of bat colonies from lit churches was highly significant and most obvious when lights were applied from all directions, leaving no dark corridor for the bats to leave and return to the roost. In contrast, in churches that were not lit, all of 13 bat colonies remained after 25+ years between the surveys. Lighting of churches and other historical buildings is a serious threat to the long-term survival and reproduction of light-averse bats such as Plecotus spp. and other slow-flying species. Bat roosts are strictly protected according to the EU Habitats Directive and the EUROBATS agreement. Lighting of buildings for aesthetic purposes is becoming a serious environmental issue, because important bat roosts are destroyed in large numbers, and the problem should be handled accordingly. As a start, installation of flood-lights on historical buildings should at least require an environmental impact assessment (EIA).
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1698
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Author Ouyang, J.Q.; de Jong, M.; van Grunsven, R.H.; Matson, K.D.; Haussmann, M.F.; Meerlo, P.; Visser, M.; Spoelstra, K.
Title What type of rigorous experiments are needed to investigate the impact of artificial light at night on individuals and populations? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 23 Issue 12 Pages e9-e10
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract In our recent paper on how artificial light at night (ALAN) affects within-individual changes in physiology, we used a unique experimental setup of colored LED lights to show effects on nighttime activity levels and physiology in free-living great tits, Parus major (Ouyang et al., 2017). Raap et al's response, entitled: “Rigorous field experiments are essential to understand the genuine severity of light pollution and to identify possible solutions” lists issues with our analyses (Raap et al., 2017). Rather than go into a detailed response, we use this forum to address the major critiques by answering the bigger question of what types of rigorous field experiments are needed to evaluate ALAN's impact. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address P.O. box 50, 6700 AB, Wageningen, Gelderland Netherlands
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28886232 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1721
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Author Yoshinaka, K.; Yamaguchi, A.; Matsumura, R.; Node, K.; Tokuda, I.; Akashi, M.
Title Effect of different light-dark schedules on estrous cycle in mice, and implications for mitigating the adverse impact of night work Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Genes to Cells : Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms Abbreviated Journal Genes Cells
Volume 22 Issue 10 Pages 876-884
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Approximately 20% of workers in developed countries are involved in night work. Nevertheless, many studies have strongly suggested that night-work-induced chronic circadian misalignment increases the risk of a diverse range of health problems. Although a relation between night work and irregular menstrual cycles has been indicated epidemiologically, a direct causal link remains elusive. Here, we report that repetitive reversal of light-dark (LD) cycles triggers irregular estrous cycles in mice. The findings showed that the estrous cycle remained irregular for more than four weeks after the mice were returned to regular LD cycles. Importantly, the magnitude of the negative impact of reversed LD cycles on the estrous cycle, or more specifically the decreased number of normal estrous cycles during the observation period, was dependent on the difference in the frequency of LD reversal. Presently, no clear solution to prevent night-work-mediated menstrual abnormalities is available, and reducing night work in modern society is difficult. Our findings indicate that optimizing work schedules could significantly prevent menstrual problems without reducing total night-work time.
Address The Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, 753-8511, Japan
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1356-9597 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28884885 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1722
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Author Willis, G.L.; Freelance, C.B.
Title The effect of directed photic stimulation of the pineal on experimental Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav
Volume 182 Issue Pages 1-9
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The role of the circadian system in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. This has emerged from recent studies demonstrating an altered response of PD patients to treatment in relation to the phase of the light/dark cycle and from other work defining the functional significance of melanocytes in PD: a cell type that the nigro-striatal dopamine (NSD) system and circadian system both contain. The present study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of the pineal, as the final common pathway of the circadian system, to light delivered directly to the pineal via surgical implantation of LEDs. Direct photic stimulation of the pineal altered the course of experimental PD while anatomical controls receiving stimulation of the frontal cortex exhibited a negative impact on the course of recovery of these animals. These effects were closely linked to the phase of the light/dark cycle. The present results suggest that while pineal photoreceptors are regarded as vestigial, functional photo-reactivity of the pineal remains. It is inferred that melanocytes are the active cells responsible for the observed effect since they remain functionally intact in mammalian pineal even though pineal photoreceptors are functionally inert. Although the stimuli applied in the present study may be regarded as artificial this study demonstrates that brain parenchyma remains differentially reactive to direct light exposure and presents a novel mechanism in circadian structures that needs to be explored.
Address The Bronowski Institute of Behavioural Neuroscience, Coliban Medical Centre, 19 Jennings Street, Kyneton, Victoria 3444, Australia
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ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28919247 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1732
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Author Henneken, J.; Jones, T.M.
Title Pheromones-based sexual selection in a rapidly changing world Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Current Opinion in Insect Science Abbreviated Journal Current Opinion in Insect Science
Volume 24 Issue Pages 84-88
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Insects utilise chemical cues for a range of different purposes and the complexity and degree of specificity of these signals is arguably unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Chemical signals are particularly important for insect reproduction and the selective pressures driving their evolution and maintenance have been the subject of previous reviews. However, the world in which chemical cues evolved and are maintained is changing at an unprecedented rate. How (or indeed whether) chemical signals used in sexual selection will respond is largely unknown. Here, we explore how recent increases in urbanisation and associated anthropogenic impacts may affect how chemical signals are produced and perceived. We focus on four anthropomorphic influences which have the potential to interact with pheromone-mediated sexual selection processes; climatic temperature shifts, exposure to chemical pollutants, the presence of artificial light at night and nutrient availability. Our aim is to provide a broad overview of key areas where the rapidly changing environment of the future might specifically affect pheromones utilised in sexual selection.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2214-5745 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1736
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