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Author Silva, A.D.; Diez‐Méndez, D.; Kempenaers, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of experimental night lighting on the daily timing of winter foraging in common European songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal J Avian Biol  
  Volume 48 Issue Pages 862-871  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract The ecological effects of light pollution are becoming better understood, especially in birds. Recent studies have shown that several bird species can use street lighting to extend activity into the night during the breeding season. However, most of these studies are correlational and little is known about the effects of artificial night lighting on the timing of activities outside the breeding season. During winter, low temperatures and short days may limit foraging opportunities and can negatively affect survival of resident birds. However, night lighting may allow them to expand the time niche available for foraging. Here, we report on a study where we repeatedly manipulated the amount of night lighting during early winter at automated feeding stations in a natural forest. We used video-recordings at the feeders to determine the time of the first (at dawn) and last (at dusk) foraging visits for six songbird species. We predicted that all species, and in particular the naturally early-foraging species, would advance their daily onset of foraging during the mornings with night lighting, but would show minimal or no delays in their daily cessation of foraging during the lighted evenings. We found that two early-foraging species, the blue tit and the great tit, started foraging earlier during the experimentally lighted mornings. However, in great tits, this effect was weak and restricted to nights with inclement weather. The light treatment did not have any effect on the start of foraging in the willow/marsh tit, the nuthatch, the European jay, and the blackbird. Artificial night lighting did not cause later foraging at dusk in any of the six species. Overall, our results suggest that artificial light during winter has only small effects on timing of foraging. We discuss these findings and the importance of temperature and winter weather in shaping the observed foraging patterns.  
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  ISSN 0908-8857 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1627  
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Author Tierney, S.M.; Friedrich, M.; Humphreys, W.F.; Jones, T.M.; Warrant, E.J.; Wcislo, W.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Consequences of evolutionary transitions in changing photic environments: Transitions in photic environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Austral Entomology Abbreviated Journal Austral Entomology  
  Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 23-46  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Light represents one of the most reliable environmental cues in the biological world. In this review we focus on the evolutionary consequences to changes in organismal photic environments, with a specific focus on the class Insecta. Particular emphasis is placed on transitional forms that can be used to track the evolution from (1) diurnal to nocturnal (dim-light) or (2) surface to subterranean (aphotic) environments, as well as (3) the ecological encroachment of anthropomorphic light on nocturnal habitats (artificial light at night). We explore the influence of the light environment in an integrated manner, highlighting the connections between phenotypic adaptations (behaviour, morphology, neurology and endocrinology), molecular genetics and their combined influence on organismal fitness. We begin by outlining the current knowledge of insect photic niches and the organismal adaptations and molecular modifications that have evolved for life in those environments. We then outline concepts and guidelines for future research in the fields of natural history, ethology, neurology, morphology and particularly the advantages that high throughput sequencing provides to these aspects of investigation. Finally, we highlight that the power of such integrative science lies in its ability to make phylogenetically robust comparative assessments of evolution, ones that are grounded by empirical evidence derived from a concrete understanding of organismal natural history.  
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  ISSN 2052174X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1610  
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Author Lee, J.G.-H.; MacGregor-Fors, I.; Yeh, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sunrise in the city: disentangling drivers of the avian dawn chorus onset in urban greenspaces Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal J Avian Biol  
  Volume 48 Issue 7 Pages 955-964  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Urban systems are known to have a number of effects on avian diversity, density, and morphological and behavioral traits. However, no study to date has simultaneously examined the wide range of urban variables in relation to the avian dawn chorus, a complex behavioral phenomenon. Previous studies investigating adjustments of the dawn chorus onset in urban settings have mainly been confined to relationships with noise and light levels. In addition to noise and light levels, in this study we included other potentially related environmental characteristics describing vegetation structure, urban infrastructure, and human activity, all of which have been shown to be drivers of bird diversity in urban areas. We conducted dawn chorus surveys at 38 Los Angeles urban greenspaces and used a classification and regression tree analysis to identify specific urban scenarios that best explained timing differences in the dawn chorus onset. Our results show that light level was the most important determinant of the dawn chorus onset time, in which, counter-intuitively, bird communities in greenspaces with higher light levels had later onsets. In addition, noise was an important factor for the chorus onset in greenspaces with higher light levels. Although our results differ from those of previous studies, these findings highlight the importance of noise and light levels in explaining dawn chorus onset variation, indicating the need for further research in untangling this complex and ecologically important phenomenon.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0908-8857 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1623  
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Author Persons, W.E.; Eason, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Human activity and habitat type affect perceived predation risk in urban white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal Ethology  
  Volume 123 Issue 5 Pages 348-356  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Predation risk is one of the largest costs associated with foraging in small mammals. Small mammals select microhabitat features such as tree and shrub canopy cover, woody debris and vegetative ground cover that can lower the risk of detection from predators and provide greater protection if discovered. Small mammals also increase foraging activity and decrease selection for cover when cloud cover increases and moon illumination is less. Often researchers assume small mammals in urban areas respond to these cues in the same manner as in natural areas, but these cues themselves are altered in urban zones. In this study, we investigated how Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) and coarse woody debris (CWD) affected giving-up density (GUD) in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Each of three habitat treatments (open flood channel, the edge and interior of the honeysuckle patch) contained cover treatments with coarse woody debris present or absent. The six treatment combinations were compared to environmental variables (temperature, humidity and illumination) and habitat variables to test their effect on GUD. Peromyscus leucopus foraged to lower densities in areas with CWD present and also under the honeysuckle canopy, using this invasive shrub to decrease predation risk, potentially increasing survivability within this urban park. Increased human presence negatively affected foraging behavior across treatments. Human presence and light pollution significantly influenced P. leucopus, modifying their foraging behavior and demonstrating that both fine- and coarse-scale urban factors can affect small mammals. Foraging increased as humidity increased, particularly under the honeysuckle canopy. Changes in illumination due to moonlight and cloud cover did not affect foraging behavior, suggesting urban light pollution may have altered behavioral responses to changes in light levels. Lonicera maackii seemed to facilitate foraging in P. leucopus, even though it adversely affects the plant community, suggesting that its impact may not be entirely negative.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0179-1613 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1642  
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Author Szekeres, P.; Wilson, A.D.M.; Haak, C.R.; Danylchuk, A.J.; Brownscombe, J.W.; Elvidge, C.K.; Shultz, A.D.; Birnie-Gauvin, K.; Cooke, S.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does coastal light pollution alter the nocturnal behavior and blood physiology of juvenile bonefish (Albula vulpes)? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Bulletin of Marine Science Abbreviated Journal bms  
  Volume 93 Issue 2 Pages 491-505  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Light pollution is a prevalent, but often overlooked, ecological concern in a variety of ecosystems. Marine environments are subjected to artificial lighting from coastal development, in addition to offshore sources, such as fishing vessels, oil platforms and cruise ships. Fish species that rely on nearshore habitats are most significantly impacted by coastal light pollution, as they are often limited to nearshore habitats due to predation risk in deeper offshore waters, particularly as juveniles. Juvenile bonefish [Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758)] inhabit the nearshore environment, and are therefore exposed to coastal lighting and other watershed development impacts. Here, we assessed juvenile bonefish behavior and physiology in the presence of two common light sources: constant street lighting (high pressure sodium) and intermittent car headlights (H4 halogen). The behavioral responses were compared with a night and day control, whereas physiology was compared only with a night control. Each behavioral trial had two time periods: light and recovery (2 hrs each). Physiology (blood glucose and whole body cortisol) was assessed after an overnight 8-hr exposure. The results suggest that there is no effect of light pollution on the swimming behavior or whole body cortisol of juvenile bonefish, but that both forms of light pollution resulted in elevated blood glucose concentrations (a simple stress indicator) relative to controls, with constant light glucose levels being significantly higher. Further research is needed to understand the ecological consequences of light pollution on bonefish and other coastal marine fish using additional endpoints, assessing fish over longer time periods, and ideally combining data from the laboratory and the field.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-4977 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1658  
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