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Author Amichai, E.; Kronfeld-Schor, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial Light at Night Promotes Activity Throughout the Night in Nesting Common Swifts (Apus apus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 11052  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract The use of artificial light at night (ALAN) is a rapidly expanding anthropogenic effect that transforms nightscapes throughout the world, causing light pollution that affects ecosystems in a myriad of ways. One of these is changing or shifting activity rhythms, largely synchronized by light cues. We used acoustic loggers to record and quantify activity patterns during the night of a diurnal bird – the common swift – in a nesting colony exposed to extremely intensive artificial illumination throughout the night at Jerusalem's Western Wall. We compared that to activity patterns at three other colonies exposed to none, medium, or medium-high ALAN. We found that in the lower-intensity ALAN colonies swifts ceased activity around sunset, later the more intense the lighting. At the Western Wall, however, swifts remained active throughout the night. This may have important implications for the birds' physiology, breeding cycle, and fitness, and may have cascading effects on their ecosystems.  
  Address School of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31363144 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2594  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Carley J. S., Grabarczyk, E. E., Vonhof, M. J., & Gill, S. A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social factors, not anthropogenic noise or artificial light, influence onset of dawn singing in a common songbird Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Auk: Ornithological Advances Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract With worldwide increases in artificial light and anthropogenic noise, understanding how these pollutants influence animals allows us to better mitigate potential negative effects. Both light and noise affect the timing of daily activities, including the onset of dawn song in birds, yet the influence of these pollutants compared with social factors that also influence song onset remains unknown. We investigated the onset of dawn song, testing hypotheses aimed at understanding the influences of light and noise pollution as well as male competition, pairing status, and breeding stage on timing of dawn singing by male House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon). Overall, models with social factors fit song onset data better than models with abiotic factors of noise and sky glow, and the highest ranking model included nesting stage, number of male neighbors, and temperature. Males began singing earlier when they were building nests and when mates were fertile than during later nesting stages. Males also sang earlier as the number of male neighbors increased. The timing of dawn song by male House Wrens appeared unaffected by day-to-day variation in light and noise pollution, with social factors having larger effects on the onset of daily behavior in this species.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2643  
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Author Stock, D. M. url  openurl
  Title LOCALIZED LIGHT SENSORY IN RELATION TO GRAZING ACTIVITY OF ECHINOMETRA MATHAEI Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract This paper offers insight on the regulation of nocturnal behavior in burrowing sea urchin Echinometra mathaei of the Pacific. While it is known E. mathaei maintains nocturnal hours of activity (primarily grazing, burrowing, and locomotion), it is unknown whether this pattern follows a circadian rhythm or responds to local conditions of darkness. Varying light treatments were tested to determine potential manipulation of active behavior and explore potential for habitat destruction. Light manipulation was used to determine the role light sensory plays in the regulation of normal behavior. First utilizing gradual manipulation and later utilizing sudden manipulation to differentiate response to light stimuli. It was determined that while E. mathaei maintains nocturnal

activity via localized light sensory, manipulation of latent hours could not be significantly reproduced. It was found that while light manipulation can be responsible for simulating hours of activity, light manipulation cannot replicate latent hours. Upon exploration of predator response capability in E. mathaei following manipulation, it was found that individuals exposed to prolonged periods of artificial light had slower predation response times than individuals acclimated to a regular pattern of light exposure. These findings connect potential habitat degradation via grazing behaviors of E. mathaei to anthropogenic activity in Mo’orea, French Polynesia.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2653  
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Author Murphy, B.A.; O’Brien, C.; Elliott, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Red light at night permits the nocturnal rise of melatonin production in horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal The Veterinary Journal  
  Volume 252 Issue Pages 105360  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Exposure to white light at night suppresses melatonin production, impacts circadian rhythms and contributes to ill-health in humans. Human interaction with horses frequently occurs at night. We tested the hypothesis that dim red light would not suppress the nightly rise in serum melatonin levels in horses. In a crossover design, six horses were maintained for consecutive 48 h periods under a Light:Red (LR) and a Light:Dark (LD) photo-schedule. Transitions from light (>200 lux, polychromatic white light) to red (5 lux, peak wavelength 625 nm) or dark (<0.5 lux), and vice versa, coincided with ambient sunset and sunrise times. Blood was collected at 2 h intervals for 24 h during each treatment via indwelling jugular catheters. Samples were harvested for serum and stored at −20 °C until assayed for melatonin by radioimmunoassay. Repeated measures two-way ANOVA and t-tests analysed for differences in LR and LD melatonin profiles and their circadian rhythm parameters.

No time x treatment interaction or effect of treatment on serum melatonin levels were demonstrated (P > 0.05). A robust main effect of time (P<0.0001) predominated, with melatonin levels rising at night under both treatments. Statistically significant differences were not observed when LR and LD were compared for circadian rhythm measures of night time peak, area under the curve (AUC), or for times of onset (evening rise), offset (morning decline), or peak duration. Low intensity red light at night did not impact the pattern of melatonin secretion in this study and is, therefore, unlikely to impact the physiology of circadian or seasonal regulation.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1090-0233 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2656  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Walbeek, T.J.; Harrison, E.M.; Soler, R.R.; Gorman, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Enhanced Circadian Entrainment in Mice and Its Utility under Human Shiftwork Schedules Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Clocks & Sleep Abbreviated Journal Clocks & Sleep  
  Volume 1 Issue 3 Pages 394-413  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract The circadian system is generally considered to be incapable of adjusting to rapid changes in sleep/work demands. In shiftworkers this leads to chronic circadian disruption and sleep loss, which together predict underperformance at work and negative health consequences. Two distinct experimental protocols have been proposed to increase circadian flexibility in rodents using dim light at night: rhythm bifurcation and T-cycle (i.e., day length) entrainment. Successful translation of such protocols to human shiftworkers could facilitate alignment of internal time with external demands. To assess entrainment flexibility following bifurcation and exposure to T-cycles, mice in Study 1 were repeatedly phase-shifted. Mice from experimental conditions rapidly phase-shifted their activity, while control mice showed expected transient misalignment. In Study 2 and 3, mice followed a several weeks-long intervention designed to model a modified DuPont or Continental shiftwork schedule, respectively. For both schedules, bifurcation and nocturnal dim lighting reduced circadian misalignment. Together, these studies demonstrate proof of concept that mammalian circadian systems can be rendered sufficiently flexible to adapt to multiple, rapidly changing shiftwork schedules. Flexible adaptation to exotic light-dark cycles likely relies on entrainment mechanisms that are distinct from traditional entrainment.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2624-5175 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2661  
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