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Author Le Tallec, T.; Théry, M.; Perret, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melatonin concentrations and timing of seasonal reproduction in male mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) exposed to light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal J of Mammalogy  
  Volume 97 Issue 3 Pages 753-760  
  Keywords Animals; light pollution; photobiology; core temperature; locomotor activity; melatonin; Microcebus murinus; primate; testosterone; lemurs; mouse lemur  
  Abstract Adverse effects of light at night are associated with human health problems and with changes in seasonal reproduction in several species. Owing to its role in the circadian timing system, melatonin production is suspected to mediate excess nocturnal light. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of light pollution on the timing of seasonal reproduction on a strict Malagasy long-day breeder, the nocturnal mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). We randomly exposed 12 males in wintering sexual rest to moonlight or to a light-mimicking nocturnal streetlight for 5 weeks. We monitored urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations (aMT6s), plasma testosterone concentrations, and testis size, and we recorded daily rhythms of core temperature and locomotor activity. In males exposed to light pollution, we observed a significant decrease in urinary aMT6s concentrations associated with changes in daily rhythm profiles and with activation of reproductive function. These results showed that males entered spontaneous sexual recrudescence leading to a summer acclimatization state, which suggests that light at night disrupts perception of day length cues, leading to an inappropriate photoentrainment of seasonal rhythms.  
  Address UMR 7179 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle , 1 avenue du petit château, 91800 Brunoy, France; thery(at)mnhn.fr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1348  
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.; Zamorano, J.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Sanchez de Miguel, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The spectral amplification effect of clouds to the night sky radiance in Madrid Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 181 Issue Pages 11-23  
  Keywords Skyglow; Madrid; Spain; Europe; artificial light at night; light pollution; clouds; amplification  
  Abstract Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) may have various environmental impacts ranging from compromising the visibility of astronomical objects to the perturbation of circadian cycles in animals and humans. In the past much research has been carried out to study the impact of ALAN on the radiance of the night sky during clear sky conditions. This was mainly justified by the need for a better understanding of the behavior of ALAN propagation into the environment in order to protect world-class astronomical facilities. More recently, alongside to the threat to the natural starry sky, many issues have emerged from the biological science community. It has been shown that, nearby or inside cities, the presence of cloud cover generally acts as an amplifier for artificial sky radiance while clouds behave as attenuators for remote observers. In this paper we show the spectral behavior of the zenith sky radiance amplification factor exerted by clouds inside a city. We compare in-situ measurements made with the spectrometer SAND-4 with a numerical model applied to the specific geographical context of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in Spain.  
  Address Cégep de Sherbrooke, 475 rue du Cégep, Sherbrooke, Canada J1E 4K1; aubema(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1351  
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Kómar, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A role of aerosol particles in forming urban skyglow and skyglow from distant cities Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS  
  Volume 458 Issue 1 Pages 438-448  
  Keywords Skyglow; scattering; atmospheric effects; artificial light; numerical modeling; GIS-based modeling; light pollution  
  Abstract Aerosol particles may represent the largest uncertainty about skyglow change in many locations under clear sky conditions. This is because aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and influence the ground-reaching radiation in different ways depending on their concentrations, origins, shapes, sizes, and compositions. Large particles tend to scatter in Fraunhofer diffraction regime, while small particles can be treated in terms of Rayleigh formalism. However, the role of particle microphysics in forming the skyglow still remains poorly quantified. We have shown in this paper that the chemistry is somehow important for backscattering from large particles that otherwise work as efficient attenuators of light pollution if composed of absorbing materials. The contribution of large particles to the urban skyglow diminishes as they become more spherical in shape. The intensity of backscattering from non-absorbing particles is more-or-less linearly decreasing function of particle radius even if number size distribution is inversely proportional to the fourth power of particle radius. This is due to single particle backscattering that generally increases steeply as the particle radius approaches large values. Forward scattering depends on the particle shape but is independent of the material composition, thus allowing for a simplistic analytical model of skyglow from distant cities. The model we have developed is based on mean value theorem for integrals and incorporates the parametrizable Garstang's emission pattern, intensity decay along optical beam path, and near-forward scattering in an atmospheric environment. Such model can be used by modellers and experimentalists for rapid estimation of skyglow from distant light sources.  
  Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská Road 9, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; kocifaj(at)savba.sk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1361  
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Author Nasar, J.L.; Bokharaei, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impressions of Lighting in Public Squares After Dark Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Environment & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Env. & Behav.  
  Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 227-254  
  Keywords Psychology; public lighting; public safety; security; crime; perception; outdoor lighting  
  Abstract Lighting may affect impressions of public squares. Following studies on office interior lighting, the present research manipulated three modes of lighting—non-uniform–uniform, peripheral–overhead, and dim–bright—in three virtual squares. One study had 32 participants (15 men, 17 women) judge the spaciousness and privacy of each of the 24 public squares. A second study had a different group of 30 participants (16 men, 14 women) rate the appeal, safety from crime, and excitement of each square. Study 1 found that judged spaciousness increased with uniform and bright lighting, and that privacy increased with non-uniform, dim, and peripheral lighting. Study 2 found that rated appeal increased with uniform and bright lighting, as did safety from crime and excitement. Across the two studies, the uniform and bright lighting conditions contributed most to the kinds of favorable experiences people might expect to have in public spaces after dark.  
  Address City & Regional Planning, Ohio State University, 200 Knowlton Hall 275 W Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Email: nasar.1(at)osu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-9165 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1390  
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Author Touitou, Y.; Reinberg, A.; Touitou, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Association between light at night, melatonin secretion, sleep deprivation, and the internal clock: Health impacts and mechanisms of circadian disruption Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Life Sciences Abbreviated Journal Life Sci  
  Volume 173 Issue Pages 94-106  
  Keywords Human Health; Review  
  Abstract Exposure to Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system, which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, 75% of the total workforce is estimated to have been involved in shift work and night work. Epidemiologic studies, mainly of nurses, have revealed an association between sustained night work and a 50-100% higher incidence of breast cancer. The potential and multifactorial mechanisms of the effects include the suppression of melatonin secretion by ALAN, sleep deprivation, and circadian disruption. Shift and/or night work generally decreases the time spent sleeping, and it disrupts the circadian time structure. In the long run, this desynchronization is detrimental to health, as underscored by a large number of epidemiological studies that have uncovered elevated rates of several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular risks, obesity, mood disorders and age-related macular degeneration. It amounts to a public health issue in the light of the very substantial number of individuals involved. The IARC has classified shift work in group 2A of “probable carcinogens to humans” since “they involve a circadian disorganization”. Countermeasures to the effects of ALAN, such as melatonin, bright light, or psychotropic drugs, have been proposed as a means to combat circadian clock disruption and improve adaptation to shift and night work. We review the evidence for the ALAN impacts on health. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of an in-depth mechanistic understanding to combat the detrimental properties of exposure to ALAN and develop strategies of prevention.  
  Address UHSA – Groupe Hospitalier Paul Guiraud, 54, avenue de la Republique, 94806 Villejuif, France  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0024-3205 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28214594 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2455  
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