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Author Brüning, A.; Hölker, F.; Wolter, C.
Title Artificial light at night: implications for early life stages development in four temperate freshwater fish species Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Aquatic Sciences Abbreviated Journal Aquat Sci
Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 143-152
Keywords Ecology
Abstract Flora and fauna have both evolved under a natural cycle of light and dark. But especially in urban areas, the night is now increasingly disturbed by artificial light. Many traits and behaviours in fish are triggered by a circadian clock, for example hatching and swim bladder inflation, which predominantly take place at dusk or night. As lighting becomes brighter and extends farther into rural areas, the distinction between day and night becomes increasingly blurred. Therefore, the loss of diurnal trigger by artificial light at night was hypothesized having deleterious effects on these traits and impact fish reproduction. To assess these effects, eggs of four native freshwater fishes, Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus, bleak Alburnus alburnus and chub Leuciscus cephalus, were incubated under two different light conditions: a photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h darkness (LD) and continuous illumination (LL). The time to hatch and swim bladder inflation was recorded. The species showed inconsistent reactions to the light treatments. In roach and bleak, the time to 50% hatch was longer in LL, whereas continuous lighting had an accelerating effect in chub. Incubation in LL elongated the hatching period in perch and roach and, in perch, the onset of darkness seemed to trigger hatching. The swim bladder inflation was significantly promoted by continuous light in chub and bleak but was not affected in roach. In conclusion, nocturnal artificial illumination could have an effect on hatching and initial swim bladder filling by masking the day–night-change and thereby diminish the trigger effect. However, the reactions were species specific and the increase in variation indicated a lack of diurnal triggering, whilst a general deleterious effect of artificial light at night has not been identified on early life stages.
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ISSN 1015-1621 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 477
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Author Eisenbeis, G.
Title Künstliches Licht und Insekten: eine vergleichende Studie in Rheinhessen Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Schriftenreihe Landespflege Naturschutz Abbreviated Journal
Volume 67 Issue Pages 75-100
Keywords Ecology; Animals
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 481
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Author Roychowdhury, K.; Jones, S.; Arrowsmith, C.; Reinke, K.
Title Indian census using satellite images: Can DMSP-OLS data be used for small administrative regions? Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), 2011 Joint Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 153 - 156
Keywords Remote Sensing; India; South Asia; DMSP; DMSP-OLS
Abstract India conducts its census every ten years. Census data is collected manually in India with enumerators visiting every household in the country. Being such a vast country (in terms of area) and with a population of more than 1 billion, manual data collection is a laborious and expensive process. In response, this paper proposes a surrogate census method using DMSP-OLS night-time images. The study focuses on smaller administrative regions such as sub-districts (or taluks as they are known in the country) in the state of Maharashtra. Models are proposed using selected census metrics, and mean and standard deviation of stable lights and brightness information as obtained from the satellite images. The adjusted r2 values range from 0.2 to 0.8 at 95% confidence interval, with the majority of the metrics being moderately correlated (with r2 between 0.4 and 0.7). Generally it was found that the observed lights and brightness of big rural settlements from DMSP-OLS images have the potential for predicting certain census metrics. However, unlike larger areas such as districts where DMSP-OLS night-time images adequately predict census metrics, at the sub-district level the results need to be supplemented and validated with other information sources such as survey reports.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 490
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Author Zamorano Calvo, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Pascual Ramírez, S.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Ramírez Moreta, P.; Challupner, P.
Title ISS nocturnal images as a scientific tool against Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Unpublished working paper submitted to NASA JSC Imaging Lab Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The potential of the night pictures taken from the International Space Station (ISS) with a Nikon D3s digital camera to fight against light pollution is shown. A scientific analysis of ISS026-E-26493 RAW image of Madrid at night with techniques used by astronomers and cartographers is performed. We suggest an observational setup to obtain useful scientific information from the pictures including series of exposures and calibration frames.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 492
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.
Title Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume 443 Issue 4 Pages 3665-3674
Keywords Skyglow; radiative transfer; scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: numerical
Abstract The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU-intensive. These new results are of theoretical and experimental significance as they will motivate experimentalists to collect data from various regions to build an overall picture of the AF, and will encourage modellers to test the consistency with theoretical predictions.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 538
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