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Author Lee, J.G.-H.; MacGregor-Fors, I.; Yeh, P.J.
Title Sunrise in the city: disentangling drivers of the avian dawn chorus onset in urban greenspaces Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal J Avian Biol
Volume 48 Issue 7 Pages 955-964
Keywords Animals
Abstract Urban systems are known to have a number of effects on avian diversity, density, and morphological and behavioral traits. However, no study to date has simultaneously examined the wide range of urban variables in relation to the avian dawn chorus, a complex behavioral phenomenon. Previous studies investigating adjustments of the dawn chorus onset in urban settings have mainly been confined to relationships with noise and light levels. In addition to noise and light levels, in this study we included other potentially related environmental characteristics describing vegetation structure, urban infrastructure, and human activity, all of which have been shown to be drivers of bird diversity in urban areas. We conducted dawn chorus surveys at 38 Los Angeles urban greenspaces and used a classification and regression tree analysis to identify specific urban scenarios that best explained timing differences in the dawn chorus onset. Our results show that light level was the most important determinant of the dawn chorus onset time, in which, counter-intuitively, bird communities in greenspaces with higher light levels had later onsets. In addition, noise was an important factor for the chorus onset in greenspaces with higher light levels. Although our results differ from those of previous studies, these findings highlight the importance of noise and light levels in explaining dawn chorus onset variation, indicating the need for further research in untangling this complex and ecologically important phenomenon.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0908-8857 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1623
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Author Wang, H.-B.; Whittaker, D.S.; Truong, D.; Mulji, A.K.; Ghiani, C.A.; Loh, D.H.; Colwell, C.S.
Title Blue light therapy improves circadian dysfunction as well as motor symptoms in two mouse models of Huntington's disease Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Abbreviated Journal Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
Volume 2 Issue Pages 39-52
Keywords animals; Human Health
Abstract Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit movement disorders, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive impairments as the disease progresses. Abnormal sleep/wake cycles are common among HD patients with reports of delayed sleep onset, fatigue during the day, and a delayed pattern of melatonin secretion all of which suggest circadian dysfunction. Mouse models of HD confirm disrupted circadian rhythms with pathophysiology found in the central circadian clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus). Importantly, circadian dysfunction manifests early in disease, even before the classic motor symptoms, in both patients and mouse models. Therefore, we hypothesize that the circadian dysfunction may interact with the disease pathology and exacerbate the HD symptoms. If correct, early intervention may benefit patients and delay disease progression. One test of this hypothesis is to determine whether light therapy designed to strengthen this intrinsic timing system can delay the disease progression in mouse models. Therefore, we determined the impact of blue wavelength-enriched light on two HD models: the BACHD and Q175 mice. Both models received 6 hours of blue-light at the beginning of their daily light cycle for 3 months. After treatment, both genotypes showed improvements in their locomotor activity rhythm without significant change to their sleep behavior. Critically, treated mice of both lines exhibited improved motor performance compared to untreated controls. Focusing on the Q175 genotype, we sought to determine whether the treatment altered signaling pathways in brain regions known to be impacted by HD using NanoString gene expression assays. We found that the expression of several HD relevant markers was altered in the striatum and cortex of the treated mice. Our study demonstrates that strengthening the circadian system can delay the progression of HD in pre-clinical models. This work suggests that lighting conditions should be considered when managing treatment of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2451-9944 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1626
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Author Rodriguez, A.; Holmes, N.D.; Ryan, P.G.; Wilson, K.-J.; Faulquier, L.; Murillo, Y.; Raine, A.F.; Penniman, J.; Neves, V.; Rodriguez, B.; Negro, J.J.; Chiaradia, A.; Dann, P.; Anderson, T.; Metzger, B.; Shirai, M.; Deppe, L.; Wheeler, J.; Hodum, P.; Gouveia, C.; Carmo, V.; Carreira, G.P.; Delgado-Alburqueque, L.; Guerra-Correa, C.; Couzi, F.-X.; Travers, M.; Le Corre, M.
Title A global review of seabird mortality caused by land-based artificial lights Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Biol
Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 986-1001
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Artificial lights at night cause high mortality of seabirds, one of the most endangered groups of birds globally. Fledglings of burrow-nesting seabirds, and to a lesser extent adults, are grounded by lights when they fly at night. We review the current state of knowledge of light attraction, identify information gaps and propose measures to address the problem. Although other avian families such as Alcidae and Anatidae can be involved, the most affected seabirds are petrels and shearwaters: at least 56 species, more than one-third of them (24) threatened, are grounded by lights. Grounded seabirds have been found worldwide, mainly on oceanic islands but also at some continental locations. Petrel breeding grounds confined to formerly uninhabited islands are particularly at risk from ever-growing levels of light pollution due to tourism and urban sprawl. Where it is impractical to ban external lights, rescue programs of grounded birds offer the most immediate and extended mitigation measures to reduce light-induced mortality, saving thousands of birds every year. These programs also provide useful information for seabird management. However, the data typically are fragmentary and often strongly biased so the phenomenon is poorly understood, leading to inaccurate impact estimates. We identified as the most urgent priority actions: 1) estimation of mortality and impact on populations; 2) assessment of threshold light levels and safe distances from light sources; 3) documenting the fate of rescued birds; 4) improvement of rescue campaigns, particularly in terms of increasing recovery rates and level of care; and 5) research on seabird-friendly lights to reduce attraction. More research is necessary to improve our understanding of this human-wildlife conflict and to design effective management and mitigation measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address UMR ENTROPIE, Universite de la Reunion 15, avenue Rene Cassin – CS 92003 97744 Saint Denis Cedex 9, La Reunion, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28151557 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1632
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Author Stothard, E.R.; McHill, A.W.; Depner, C.M.; Birks, B.R.; Moehlman, T.M.; Ritchie, H.K.; Guzzetti, J.R.; Chinoy, E.D.; LeBourgeois, M.K.; Axelsson, J.; Wright, K.P.J.
Title Circadian Entrainment to the Natural Light-Dark Cycle across Seasons and the Weekend Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 508-513
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Reduced exposure to daytime sunlight and increased exposure to electrical lighting at night leads to late circadian and sleep timing [1-3]. We have previously shown that exposure to a natural summer 14 hr 40 min:9 hr 20 min light-dark cycle entrains the human circadian clock to solar time, such that the internal biological night begins near sunset and ends near sunrise [1]. Here we show that the beginning of the biological night and sleep occur earlier after a week's exposure to a natural winter 9 hr 20 min:14 hr 40 min light-dark cycle as compared to the modern electrical lighting environment. Further, we find that the human circadian clock is sensitive to seasonal changes in the natural light-dark cycle, showing an expansion of the biological night in winter compared to summer, akin to that seen in non-humans [4-8]. We also show that circadian and sleep timing occur earlier after spending a weekend camping in a summer 14 hr 39 min:9 hr 21 min natural light-dark cycle compared to a typical weekend in the modern environment. Weekend exposure to natural light was sufficient to achieve approximately 69% of the shift in circadian timing we previously reported after a week's exposure to natural light [1]. These findings provide evidence that the human circadian clock adapts to seasonal changes in the natural light-dark cycle and is timed later in the modern environment in both winter and summer. Further, we demonstrate that earlier circadian timing can be rapidly achieved through natural light exposure during a weekend spent camping.
Address Department of Integrative Physiology, Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0354, USA. Electronic address: kenneth.wright@colorado.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28162893 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1633
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Cruse, D.; Blumgart, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Multiple night-time light-emitting diode lighting strategies impact grassland invertebrate assemblages Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 23 Issue 7 Pages 2641-2648
Keywords Ecology; grasslands; LED
Abstract White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are rapidly replacing conventional outdoor lighting technologies around the world. Despite rising concerns over their impact on the environment and human health, the flexibility of LEDs has been advocated as a means of mitigating the ecological impacts of globally widespread outdoor night-time lighting through spectral manipulation, dimming and switching lights off during periods of low demand. We conducted a three-year field experiment in which each of these lighting strategies was simulated in a previously artificial light naive grassland ecosystem. White LEDs both increased the total abundance and changed the assemblage composition of adult spiders and beetles. Dimming LEDs by 50% or manipulating their spectra to reduce ecologically damaging wavelengths partially reduced the number of commoner species affected from seven to four. A combination of dimming by 50% and switching lights off between midnight and 04:00 am showed the most promise for reducing the ecological costs of LEDs, but the abundances of two otherwise common species were still affected. The environmental consequences of using alternative lighting technologies are increasingly well established. These results suggest that while management strategies using LEDs can be an effective means of reducing the number of taxa affected, averting the ecological impacts of night-time lighting may ultimately require avoiding its use altogether.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28139040 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1634
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