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Author Grenis, K.; Murphy, S.M.
Title Direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Insect Science Abbreviated Journal Insect Sci
Volume 26 Issue 4 Pages 770-776
Keywords Animals; Plants
Abstract Light pollution is a global disturbance with resounding impacts on a wide variety of organisms, but our understanding of these impacts is restricted to relatively few higher vertebrate species. We tested the direct effects of light pollution on herbivore performance as well as indirect effects mediated by host plant quality. We found that artificial light from streetlights alters plant toughness. Additionally, we found evidence of both direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect, which indicates that streetlights can have cascading impacts on multiple trophic levels. Our novel findings suggest that light pollution can alter plant-insect interactions and thus may have important community-wide consequences.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1672-9609 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29425403 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1865
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Author Johns, L.E.; Jones, M.E.; Schoemaker, M.J.; McFadden, E.; Ashworth, A.; Swerdlow, A.J.
Title Domestic light at night and breast cancer risk: a prospective analysis of 105 000 UK women in the Generations Study Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication British Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Br J Cancer
Volume 118 Issue Pages 600-606
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND: Circadian disruption caused by exposure to light at night (LAN) has been proposed as a risk factor for breast cancer and a reason for secular increases in incidence. Studies to date have largely been ecological or case-control in design and findings have been mixed. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between LAN and breast cancer risk in the UK Generations Study. Bedroom light levels and sleeping patterns at age 20 and at study recruitment were obtained by questionnaire. Analyses were conducted on 105 866 participants with no prior history of breast cancer. During an average of 6.1 years of follow-up, 1775 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: There was no association between LAN level and breast cancer risk overall (highest compared with lowest LAN level at recruitment: HR=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.15), or for invasive (HR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.85-1.13) or in situ (HR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.83-1.11) breast cancer, or oestrogen-receptor (ER) positive (HR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.84-1.14); or negative (HR=1.16, 95% CI: 0.82-1.65) tumours separately. The findings did not differ by menopausal status. Adjusting for sleep duration, sleeping at unusual times (non-peak sleep) and history of night work did not affect the results. Night waking with exposure to light, occurring around age 20, was associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (HR for breast cancer overall=0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99; HR for ER-positive breast cancer=0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective cohort analysis of LAN, there was no evidence that LAN exposure increased the risk of subsequent breast cancer, although the suggestion of a lower breast cancer risk in pre-menopausal women with a history of night waking in their twenties may warrant further investigation.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 January 2018; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.359 www.bjcancer.com.
Address Division of Breast Cancer Research, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-0920 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29360812 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1803
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Author Craggs, J.; Guest, J.R.; Davis, M.; Simmons, J.; Dashti, E.; Sweet, M.
Title Inducing broadcast coral spawning ex situ: Closed system mesocosm design and husbandry protocol Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 7 Issue 24 Pages 11066-11078
Keywords Moonlight; Animals; *Acropora; *gametogenic cycle ex situ; *insolation; *lunar cycle; *photoperiod
Abstract For many corals, the timing of broadcast spawning correlates strongly with a number of environmental signals (seasonal temperature, lunar, and diel cycles). Robust experimental studies examining the role of these putative cues in triggering spawning have been lacking until recently because it has not been possible to predictably induce spawning in fully closed artificial mesocosms. Here, we present a closed system mesocosm aquarium design that utilizes microprocessor technology to accurately replicate environmental conditions, including photoperiod, seasonal insolation, lunar cycles, and seasonal temperature from Singapore and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Coupled with appropriate coral husbandry, these mesocosms were successful in inducing, for the first time, broadcast coral spawning in a fully closed artificial ex situ environment. Four Acropora species (A. hyacinthus, A. tenuis, A. millepora, and A. microclados) from two geographical locations, kept for over 1 year, completed full gametogenic cycles ex situ. The percentage of colonies developing oocytes varied from ~29% for A. hyacinthus to 100% for A. millepora and A. microclados. Within the Singapore mesocosm, A. hyacinthus exhibited the closest synchronization to wild spawning, with all four gravid colonies releasing gametes in the same lunar month as wild predicted dates. Spawning within the GBR mesocosm commenced at the predicted wild spawn date but extended over a period of 3 months. Gamete release in relation to the time postsunset for A. hyacinthus, A. millepora, and A. tenuis was consistent with time windows previously described in the wild. Spawn date in relation to full moon, however, was delayed in all species, possibly as a result of external light pollution. The system described here could broaden the number of institutions on a global scale, that can access material for broadcast coral spawning research, providing opportunities for institutions distant from coral reefs to produce large numbers of coral larvae and juveniles for research purposes and reef restoration efforts.
Address Aquatic Research Facility Environmental Sustainability Research Centre College of Life and Natural Sciences University of Derby Derby UK
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29299282; PMCID:PMC5743687 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2698
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Author Tripathy, B.R.; Sajjad, H.; Elvidge, C.D.; Ting, Y.; Pandey, P.C.; Rani, M.; Kumar, P.
Title Modeling of Electric Demand for Sustainable Energy and Management in India Using Spatio-Temporal DMSP-OLS Night-Time Data Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Environ Manage
Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 615-623
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Changes in the pattern of electric power consumption in India have influenced energy utilization processes and socio-economic development to greater extent during the last few decades. Assessment of spatial distribution of electricity consumption is, thus, essential for projecting availability of energy resource and planning its infrastructure. This paper makes an attempt to model the future electricity demand for sustainable energy and its management in India. The nighttime light database provides a good approximation of availability of energy. We utilized defense meteorological satellite program-operational line-scan system (DMSP-OLS) nighttime satellite data, electricity consumption (1993-2013), gross domestic product (GDP) and population growth to construct the model. We also attempted to examine the sensitiveness of electricity consumption to GDP and population growth. The results revealed that the calibrated DMSP and model has provided realistic information on the electric demand with respect to GDP and population, with a better accuracy of r (2) = 0.91. The electric demand was found to be more sensitive to GDP (r = 0.96) than population growth (r = 0.76) as envisaged through correlation analysis. Hence, the model proved to be useful tool in predicting electric demand for its sustainable use and management.
Address Department of Geography, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025, India. pavan.jamia@gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0364-152X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29282533 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2484
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Author Davies, T.W.; Smyth, T.
Title Why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 872-882
Keywords Commentary; Animals; Plants
Abstract The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century. Our reasons extend beyond those concerned principally with the environment, to also include impacts on human health, culture and biodiversity conservation more generally. We conclude that the growing use of night-time lighting will continue to raise numerous ecological, human health and cultural issues, but that opportunities exist to mitigate its impacts by combining novel technologies with sound scientific evidence. The potential gains from appropriate management extend far beyond those for the environment, indeed it may play a key role in transitioning towards a more sustainable society.
Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:29124824 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2054
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