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Author Kitahashi, T.; Kurokawa, D.; Ogiso, S.; Suzuki, N.; Ando, H.
Title Light-induced and circadian expressions of melanopsin genes opn4xa and opn4xb in the eyes of juvenile grass puffer Takifugu alboplumbeus Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Fish Physiology and Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Fish Physiol Biochem
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Biological clock; Circadian rhythm; Diurnal rhythm; Light; Melanopsin; Photoreceptor
Abstract Animals regulate a variety of aspects of physiology according to environmental light conditions via nonvisual opsins such as melanopsin. In order to study photic regulation of fish physiology, expression changes of the genes for melanopsin (opn4xa and opn4xb) and effects of light on them were examined in juvenile grass puffer Takifugu alboplumbeus using quantitative real-time PCR. In the brain of juvenile fish, no significant diurnal nor circadian changes were observed in opn4x mRNA levels. On the other hand, in the eyes, the mRNA level of opn4xa showed a significant diurnal rhythm with a peak at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 4, while no apparent circadian changes were observed. The mRNA level of opn4xb in the eyes showed a diurnal change similar to that of opn4xa, while it showed a significant circadian change. Furthermore, continuous exposure to light during a subjective night significantly increased the mRNA levels of opn4xa in the eyes at ZT24, suggesting that light induces gene expression of opn4xa in the eyes and that the induction occurs only during the night-day transition period. These results suggest that Opn4xa and Opn4xb play differential roles in the eyes of juvenile grass puffer to mediate the physiological effects of environmental light information.
Address Sado Marine Biological Station, Sado Island Center for Ecological Sustainability, Niigata University, 87 Tassha, Sado-shi, Niigata, 952-2135, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0920-1742 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:33559801 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3353
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Author Zhang, D.; Jones, R.R.; James, P.; Kitahara, C.M.; Xiao, Q.
Title Associations between artificial light at night and risk for thyroid cancer: A large US cohort study Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Cancer Abbreviated Journal Cancer
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; circadian disruption; light at night; melatonin; prospective cohort; thyroid cancer
Abstract BACKGROUND: Light at night (LAN) inhibits nighttime secretion of melatonin and may cause circadian disruption, which may be a risk factor for cancer. Recent studies have linked high LAN exposure with elevated breast cancer risk. Given that breast cancer may share a common hormone-dependent etiology with thyroid cancer and that circadian rhythms play a role in regulating thyroid function, the authors hypothesized that exposure to LAN is positively associated with thyroid cancer incidence. METHODS: This study examined the association between LAN and thyroid cancer incidence in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. LAN exposure was estimated from satellite data and was linked to residential addresses at the baseline. Incident thyroid cancer cases were ascertained via linkage to state cancer registries. Cox regression was used to determine the relationship between LAN and thyroid cancer risk, with adjustments made for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. RESULTS: Among 464,371 participants, a positive association was found between LAN and thyroid cancer risk. Specifically, in comparison with the lowest quintile of LAN, the highest quintile was associated with a 55% increase in risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.02). The association was primarily driven by papillary thyroid cancer and was stronger in women (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26-2.60) than men (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.86-1.94). In women, the association was stronger for localized cancer, whereas in men, the association was stronger for a more advanced stage. Results were consistent across different tumor sizes. CONCLUSIONS: LAN was positively associated with thyroid cancer risk. Future studies are needed to confirm this association and identify underlying biological mechanisms.
Address Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0008-543X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:33554351 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3354
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Author Murugavel, B.; Kelber, A.; Somanathan, H.
Title Light, flight and the night: effect of ambient light and moon phase on flight activity of pteropodid bats Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Moonlight; Ambient light; Flight activity; Moon phases; Pteropodids; Twilight zones
Abstract Fruit-feeding pteropodid bats roost under varying light conditions. Some roost in trees with high exposure to daylight (> 1000 lx), while others roost in dark caves (< 0.1 lx). To understand the effect of ambient light intensity and moon phase on flight activity, we examined flight times across five lunar cycles in three pteropodid species whose roosts differ in daylight exposure. We found significant interspecific differences in flight emergence and termination times. All species initiated flights after sunset but Rousettus leschenaultii, which typically roosts in caves, delayed emergence (40 +/- 11 min) more than the two tree-roosting species Pteropus giganteus (16 +/- 6 min) and Cynopterus sphinx (19 +/- 7 min). R. leschenaultii terminated flights earlier (30 +/- 7 min before sunrise) than P. giganteus (11 +/- 11 min) and C. sphinx (16 +/- 10 min). All individuals from P. giganteus and C. sphinx roosts emerged within less than an hour, while emergence times were more spread out in the R. leschenaultii colony. Peak emergence times differed across moon phases in the cave-roosting R. leschenaultii but not in the other species. Flight activity in R. leschenaultii is restricted to comparatively lower light levels than the tree-roosting species. The observed interspecific differences suggest that bat species, sharing same landscapes may respond differently to light pollution.
Address IISER TVM Centre for Research and Education in Ecology and Evolution (ICREEE), School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, India
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0340-7594 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:33537858 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3346
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Author Kwarteng, E.V.S.; Andam-Akorful, S.A.; Kwarteng, A.; Asare, D.-C.B.; Quaye-Ballard, J.A.; Osei, F.B.; Duker, A.A.
Title Spatial variation in lymphatic filariasis risk factors of hotspot zones in Ghana Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health
Volume 21 Issue 1 Pages 230
Keywords Remote sensing; Ecological niche modelling; Ensemble modelling; Generalised boosted model (GBM); Lymphatic filariasis; Machine learning; Random forest (RF)
Abstract BACKGROUND: Lymphatic Filariasis (LF), a parasitic nematode infection, poses a huge economic burden to affected countries. LF endemicity is localized and its prevalence is spatially heterogeneous. In Ghana, there exists differences in LF prevalence and multiplicity of symptoms in the country's northern and southern parts. Species distribution models (SDMs) have been utilized to explore the suite of risk factors that influence the transmission of LF in these geographically distinct regions. METHODS: Presence-absence records of microfilaria (mf) cases were stratified into northern and southern zones and used to run SDMs, while climate, socioeconomic, and land cover variables provided explanatory information. Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Generalized Boosted Model (GBM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Surface Range Envelope (SRE), Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), and Random Forests (RF) algorithms were run for both study zones and also for the entire country for comparison. RESULTS: Best model quality was obtained with RF and GBM algorithms with the highest Area under the Curve (AUC) of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. The models predicted high suitable environments for LF transmission in the short grass savanna (northern) and coastal (southern) areas of Ghana. Mainly, land cover and socioeconomic variables such as proximity to inland water bodies and population density uniquely influenced LF transmission in the south. At the same time, poor housing was a distinctive risk factor in the north. Precipitation, temperature, slope, and poverty were common risk factors but with subtle variations in response values, which were confirmed by the countrywide model. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that different variable combinations influence the occurrence of lymphatic filariasis in northern and southern Ghana. Thus, an understanding of the geographic distinctness in risk factors is required to inform on the development of area-specific transmission control systems towards LF elimination in Ghana and internationally.
Address Department of Geomatic Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:33509140; PMCID:PMC7841995 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3331
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Author Jones, R.R.
Title Exposure to artificial light at night and risk of cancer: where do we go from here? Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication British Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Br J Cancer
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Commentary; Human Health
Abstract Despite experimental and mechanistic data suggesting circadian disruption's role in carcinogenesis, mixed findings from epidemiological investigations of artificial light at night and cancer risk in the general population are difficult to interpret due to exposure assessment limitations. It will be important for future studies to assess and validate individual-level exposures, ideally over the lifetime.
Address Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20895, USA. rena.jones@nih.gov
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-0920 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (down) PMID:33483586 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3296
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