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Author Bouroussis, C.A.; Topalis, F.V.
Title The effect of the spectral response of measurement instruments in the assessment of night sky brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 216 Issue Pages 56-69
Keywords Skyglow; Instrumentation
Abstract This paper deals with the errors and uncertainties in skyglow measurements caused by the variation of sky's spectrum. It considers the theoretical spectral response of common instruments that are used for light pollution assessment. Various types of light sources were used in this investigation. This study calculates the spectral mismatch errors and the corresponding correction factors for each combination of instrument and light source. The calculation method is described and the results are presented in multiple figures. Calculated data show a big variation in potential errors that can be introduced when comparing readings of diverse instruments without considering the sky spectrum variation. This makes the spectral data of the sky a mandatory input to the dark sky assessment. Useful conclusions, related to instruments with better or worse behaviour, are derived from the calculations. The paper also includes suggestions on how to conduct multi-instrument measurements with or without spectral data.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1908
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Author Wang, L.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.; Wang, X.; Lei, C.; Zhu, F.
Title Members of the neuropeptide transcriptional network in Helicoverpa armigera and their expression in response to light stress Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Gene Abbreviated Journal Gene
Volume 671 Issue Pages 67-77
Keywords Animals
Abstract Neuropeptides and peptide hormones play central roles in the regulation of various types of insect physiology and behavior. Artificial light at night, a form of environmental stress, has recently been regarded as a source of light stress on nocturnal insects. Because related genomic information is not available, molecular biological studies on the response of neuropeptides in nocturnal insects to light stress are limited. Based on the de novo sequencing of the Helicoverpa armigera head transcriptome, we obtained 124,960 unigenes. Of these, the number of unigenes annotated as neuropeptides and peptide hormones, neurotransmitter precursor processing enzymes, and neurotransmitter receptors were 34, 17, and 58, respectively. Under light stress, there were sex-specific differences in gene expression measured by qRT-PCR. The IMFamide, leucokinin and sNPF genes were differentially expressed at the mRNA level in males but not in females in response to light stress. The results provide new insights on the diversity of the neuropeptide transcriptional network of H. armigera. In addition, some neuropeptides exhibited sex-specific differential expression in response to light stress. Taken collectively, these results not only expand the catalog of known insect neuropeptides but also provide a framework for future functional studies on the physiological roles they play in the light stress response behavior of nocturnal moths.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0378-1119 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1910
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Author Baddiley, C.
Title Light pollution modelling, and measurements at Malvern Hills AONB, of county conversion to blue rich LEDs Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 219 Issue Pages 142-173
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The introduction of blue rich colour, Correlated-Colour-Temperature (CCT) 6000K road lighting could increase skyglow significantly compared with CCT 3000K types, if the blue content reaches the sky.

Highways England have a policy for lighting specification on motorways advised by the author's work. This is a categorised environmental impact point system of summed brightness as a function of angle from vertically down to the cut off angle; but with no CCT limitation.

Modelling was done for Malvern-Hills Area-of-Outstanding-Natural-Beauty (MHAONB), for the nighttime environmental impact of the LED replacement of Low-Pressure-Sodium throughout Herefordshire. The study was extended to include High-Pressure-Sodium and to LEDs at several CCTs, for the same Photopic ground illuminance.

Dark-Sky-Survey geographic location results for the MHAONB (2012) are described. Near-Zenith sky brightness photometry became continuous from 2016 at 2 minute intervals in all weathers, not just clear nights, with a networked calibrated Unihedron Lensed Sky Quality Meter (LSQM). Samples were also taken of all-sky camera images, corrected for vignetting and near-Zenith calibrated with the LSQM, to study weather effects, Milky Way contribution, and Herefordshire lighting conversion to blue-rich LEDs (2013-15), compared with the less converted Severn valley direction.

Time-plots and histogram analysis showed a small reduction in brightness (2012-2018), 0.1 mag.arcsec−2. Most variation is from increased sampling of distant cloud cover effects. Mist or low cloud on the horizon obscures light sources beyond reducing local skyglow, while high cloud reflects, increasing clear sky brightness. The Milky Way is critically 20% above background. Darkest periods near Zenith reach 21.1 mag.arcsec−2, to 21.2 after rain or surrounding low-cloud or poor-visibility. Clear-sky brightness decreases into early hours (∼0.03 mag.arcsec−2/hr); dimming effects were not seen.

The Zenith brightness is still set by distant cities, while towards the horizon, commercial and private uncontrolled non-directional LED lighting is increasing, negating the improvements in road lighting.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1914
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Author Linares, H.; Masana, E.; Ribas, S.J.; Garcia - Gil, M.; Figueras, F.; Aubé, M.
Title Modelling the night sky brightness and light pollution sources of Montsec protected area Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 217 Issue Pages 178-188
Keywords skyglow
Abstract We proceeded to the modelling of the night sky brightness of Montsec area (north-east of Spain), an astronomical protected area certified as a Starlight Reserve. We have used the hyperspectral version of ILLUMINA, an artificial sky brightness model. Ground based measurements for Montsec and other areas of Catalonia 0015 ; 0016, including both photometric and spectroscopic data, has been used to fit and evaluate the input parameters of the model. In this first modelling attempt, Lleida, the biggest city in the area, has been considered as the unique source of light pollution. In 2014 there was an update of the lighting infrastructure in Lleida. A detailed comparison of the sky brightness before and after the change is shown in order to measure the effects that different kind of lamps can produce. This information could be used to plan for future updates and improvements of the lighting systems in the area.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1923
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Author Cai, W.; Yue, J.; Dai, Q.; Hao, L.; Lin, Y.; Shi, W.; Huang, Y.; Wei, M.
Title The impact of room surface reflectance on corneal illuminance and rule-of-thumb equations for circadian lighting design Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume 141 Issue Pages 288-297
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Recently, corneal illuminance attracts much attention because it is closely related to important functions of indoor lighting. Especially, applying circadian light in the built environment places a challenging requirement on indirect corneal illuminance. In this work, rule-of-thumb equations are proposed to guide circadian lighting design: (i) for artificial lighting, Ecor,avg (i) = (Φ/C1) · ρ/(1−ρ′), where Ecor,avg (i) is the average indirect corneal illuminance at standing or sitting positions, Φ is the initial flux from luminaires, C1 is a constant comparable to the total room surface area, ρ is the reflectance of the surface where the first reflection occurs, and ρ′ is the area-weighted average of surface reflectance; and (ii) for daylighting, Ecor,avg (i) = C2 · WWR · ρ/(1−ρ′), where C2 is a constant, and WWR represents the window-to-wall ratio.

The equations above are validated by comparing against numerical simulation data obtained with the Radiance software. For artificial lighting simulation, various combinations of room surface reflectance, initial light distribution, and WWR are investigated; and for daylighting simulation, different combinations of surface reflectance, WWR, and geographic location are analyzed. The good fits to simulation data indicate that the proposed simple equations can provide reasonably accurate results for quick feedback at the field. It is also demonstrated that room surface reflectance has a dominant impact on indirect corneal illuminance. The approach of improving surface reflectance is more favorable than increasing luminaire flux or expanding window area, and therefore should be the recommended approach to achieve quality and efficient circadian lighting.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1929
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