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Author Jechow, A.; Kolláth, Z.; Lerner, A.; Hänel, A.; Shashar, N.; Hölker, F.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Measuring Light Pollution with Fisheye Lens Imagery from A Moving Boat–A Proof of Concept Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 15-25
Keywords Skyglow; Instrumentation
Abstract Near all-sky imaging photometry was performed from a boat on the Gulf of Aqaba to measure the night sky brightness in a coastal environment. The boat was not anchored, and therefore drifted and rocked. The camera was mounted on a tripod without any inertia/motion stabilization. A commercial digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera and fisheye lens were used with ISO setting of 6400, with the exposure time varied between 0.5 s and 5 s. We find that despite movement of the vessel the measurements produce quantitatively comparable results apart from saturation effects. We discuss the potential and limitations of this method for mapping light pollution in marine and freshwater systems. This work represents the proof of concept that all-sky photometry with a commercial DSLR camera is a viable tool to determine light pollution in an ecological context from a moving boat.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2151
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Author Fotios, S.; Monteiro, A.L.; Uttley, J.
Title Evaluation of pedestrian reassurance gained by higher illuminances in residential streets using the day–dark approach Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Vision; Psychology; Security
Abstract A field study was conducted to investigate how changes in the illuminance affect pedestrian reassurance when walking after dark in an urban location. The field study was conducted in daytime and after dark in order to employ the day–dark approach to analysis of optimal lighting. The results suggest that minimum illuminance is a better predictor of reassurance than is mean illuminance. For a day–dark difference of 0.5 units on a 6-point response scale, the results suggest a minimum horizontal illuminance of approximately 2.0 lux.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2159
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Author Grunst, M.L.; Raap, T.; Grunst, A.S.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title Artificial light at night does not affect telomere shortening in a developing free-living songbird: A field experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume 662 Issue Pages 266-275
Keywords Animals; birds; Great tit; Parus major; telomere shortening; Stress
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly pervasive anthropogenic disturbance factor. ALAN can seriously disrupt physiological systems that follow circadian rhythms, and may be particularly influential early in life, when developmental trajectories are sensitive to stressful conditions. Using great tits (Parus major) as a model species, we experimentally examined how ALAN affects physiological stress in developing nestlings. We used a repeated-measure design to assess effects of ALAN on telomere shortening, body mass, tarsus length and body condition. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that protect chromosomes from damage and malfunction. Early-life telomere shortening can be accelerated by environmental stressors, and has been linked to later-life declines in survival and reproduction. We also assayed nitric oxide, as an additional metric of physiological stress, and determined fledging success. Change in body condition between day 8 and 15 differed according to treatment. Nestlings exposed to ALAN displayed a trend towards a decline in condition, whereas control nestlings displayed a trend towards increased condition. This pattern was driven by a greater increase in tarsus length relative to mass in nestlings exposed to ALAN. Nestlings in poorer condition and nestlings that were smaller than their nest mates had shorter telomeres. However, exposure to ALAN was unrelated to telomere shortening, and also had no effect on nitric oxide concentrations or fledging success. Thus, exposure to ALAN may not have led to sufficient stress to induce telomere shortening. Indeed, plasticity in other physiological systems could allow nestlings to maintain telomere length despite moderate stress. Alternatively, the cascade of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light exposure may have no net effect on telomere dynamics.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2161
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Author Bará, S.
Title Characterizing the zenithal night sky brightness in large territories: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 473 Issue 3 Pages 4164-4173
Keywords Instrumentation; atmospheric effects; light pollution; numerical methods; photometry
Abstract A recurring question arises when trying to characterize, by means of measurements or theoretical calculations, the zenithal night sky brightness throughout a large territory: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? The optimum sampling distance should allow reconstructing, with sufficient accuracy, the continuous zenithal brightness map across the whole region, whilst at the same time avoiding unnecessary and redundant oversampling. This paper attempts to provide some tentative answers to this issue, using two complementary tools: the luminance structure function and the Nyquist–Shannon spatial sampling theorem. The analysis of several regions of the world, based on the data from the New world atlas of artificial night sky brightness, suggests that, as a rule of thumb, about one measurement per square kilometre could be sufficient for determining the zenithal night sky brightness of artificial origin at any point in a region to within ±0.1 magV arcsec–2 (in the root-mean-square sense) of its true value in the Johnson–Cousins V band. The exact reconstruction of the zenithal night sky brightness maps from samples taken at the Nyquist rate seems to be considerably more demanding.
Address 1Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2164
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Author Kienast, F.; Weiss, M.
Title Wie Lichtemissionen den Schweizer Wald seit 1992 erhellen Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen Abbreviated Journal Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen
Volume 170 Issue 1 Pages 18-23
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract How light emissions have been lighting up the Swiss forest since 1992

Light emissions increasingly light up the night sky. Worldwide and in Switzerland, there has been a marked increase over the last 20 to 30 years. This is problematic for biological-ecological and health reasons as well as for cultural reasons. At federal and cantonal level, there are various laws and technical standards governing light emissions. In order to monitor the success of these regulations, it is important to observe night-time brightness over longer periods and within larger areas. In Switzerland, this is done within the framework of the Swiss Landscape Observatory (LABES), which provides time series for night-time observations for the years 1992 to 2012. The present work uses satellite images to investigate the extent to which the Swiss forests are lighted up by nocturnal emissions from surrounding residential areas and infrastructures. It also examines the differences between the forest and open land (meadows, fields and remote areas far away from settlements above the treeline) and how the forested area without any detectable artificial light developed between 1992 and 2012. It is shown that the Swiss forests are more and more lighted up by surrounding light sources. With the exception of the Jura, night-time brightness in forest areas is even higher than in open land, which in the present study is dominated by areas above the treeline. The results can be explained by the relative proximity of the forest to residential areas. On the Plateau the last patch of forest without any detectable artificial light during the night disappeared in 2001, and in the Jura mountains in 2010: in the Alps there are still between 4% (Western Central Alps) and 16% (Southern Alps) forest areas without any detectable artificial light during night time. The last large dark areas are, however, not found in the forested area, but in the areas above the treeline. They should be given adequate protection against illumination, for example with large protection areas (“dark sky parks”).

Wie Lichtemissionen den Schweizer Wald seit 1992 erhellen

Lichtemissionen erhellen den Nachthimmel immer mehr. Weltweit und in der Schweiz ist in den letzten 20 bis 30 Jahren eine starke Zunahme festzustellen. Dies ist sowohl aus biologisch-ökologischen und gesundheitlichen als auch aus kulturellen Gründen problematisch. Auf Bundes- und Kantonsebene gibt es verschiedene Gesetze und technische Normen, welche die Lichtemissionen regeln. Für die Erfolgskontrolle dieser Vorschriften ist es wichtig, die Nachthelligkeit über längere Zeiträume und grössere Gebiete zu beobachten. Dies geschieht in der Schweiz im Rahmen der Landschaftsbeobachtung Schweiz (LABES), die für die Jahre 1992 bis 2012 Zeitserien zur Nachthelligkeit zur Verfügung stellt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird anhand von Satellitenbildern untersucht, wie stark der Schweizer Wald durch Lichtemissionen der umliegenden Siedlungen und Infrastrukturen aufgehellt wird, welche Unterschiede zum Offenland (Wiesen, Felder und siedlungsferne Gebiete über der Waldgrenze) bestehen und wie sich die Fläche des nachtdunklen Waldes zwischen 1992 und 2012 entwickelt hat. Es zeigt sich, dass die Schweizer Wälder zunehmend durch umliegende Lichtquellen aufgehellt sind. Mit Ausnahme des Juras ist die Nachthelligkeit in Waldgebieten sogar höher als im Offenland, das in der vorliegenden Untersuchung flächenmässig durch die Gebiete über der Waldgrenze dominiert wird. Die Resultate können mit der relativen Siedlungsnähe des Waldes erklärt werden. Während es im Mittelland ab 2001 und im Jura ab 2010 keine nachtdunklen Waldflächen mehr gibt, findet man in den Alpen je nach Region noch zwischen 4% (westliche Zentralalpen) und 16% (Alpensüdflanke) völlig nachtdunkle Waldflächen, d.h. Waldflächen ohne menschlichen Lichteinfluss. Die letzten grossen, völlig nachtdunklen Flächen liegen aber nicht im Waldareal, sondern in den Gebieten über der Waldgrenze. Sie sollten gegen Aufhellung besonders geschützt werden, zum Beispiel mit grossflächigen Schutzgebieten («dark sky parks»).

Comment les émissions lumineuses éclairent la forêt suisse depuis 1992

Le ciel nocturne est de plus en plus éclairé par les émissions lumineuses. On constate dans le monde entier et en Suisse une forte progression des émissions lumineuses ces dernières 20 à 30 années. Ceci est problématique aussi bien pour des raisons bioécologiques et sanitaires que culturelles. Différentes lois et normes techniques, aux niveaux de la Confédération et des cantons, règlent les émissions lumineuses. Il est important d'observer la clarté nocturne sur de longues périodes et de larges régions afin de contrôler le succès de ces mesures. Ceci est réalisé dans le cadre de l'Observation du paysage suisse (OPS) qui met à disposition des séries de données sur les émissions lumineuses pour les années 1992 à 2012. Ce travail examine à l'aide d'images satellites à quel point la forêt suisse est éclairée par les émissions lumineuses nocturnes issues des zones habitées et des infrastructures environnantes, les différences existantes avec les zones ouvertes (prés, champs et zones éloignées des habitats au-delà de la forêt) et comment se sont développées les surfaces nocturnes sombres de la forêt entre 1992 et 2012. Il est démontré que les forêts suisses sont de plus en plus éclairées par les sources lumineuses environnantes. A l'exception du Jura, la clarté nocturne est même plus importante en forêt que dans les surfaces ouvertes, qui dans cette étude sont essentiellement composées de surfaces au-delà de la forêt. Les résultats peuvent être expliqués par la proximité de la forêt avec les zones habitées. Alors qu'il n'existe plus de surfaces forestières sombres la nuit depuis 2001 sur le Plateau et 2010 dans le Jura, il existe encore dans les Alpes selon la région, 4% (Alpes centrales occidentales) et 16% (versant sud des Alpes), de surfaces forestières sombres durant la nuit, c'est à dire des surfaces forestières sans influence lumineuse anthropogénique. Les dernières grandes surfaces totalement sombres durant la nuit ne se situent toutefois pas en forêt, mais au-delà de la forêt. Elles devraient être protégées contre les émissions lumineuses, par exemple avec des grandes réserves («dark sky parks»).
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0036-7818 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2165
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