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Author Lawrence, B.K.; Fehr, W.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reproductive Response of Soybeans to Night Interruption1 Type Journal Article
  Year 1981 Publication Crop Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 21 Issue 5 Pages 755  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Artificial lights may be used to delay flowering of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. Previous research has suggested that night interruption imposed every other night would delay flowering as much as every-night interruption. Our objective was to evaluate the reproductive development of cultivars when exposed to night interruption every night compared with exposure every other night. One cultivar of each Maturity Group 00 through V was grown in the field at Ames, Iowa during 1978 and 1979. The four light treatments imposed every night or every other night included illumination with incandescent light from sunset to sunrise, 2300 to 0030 hours, 0030 to 0200 hours, or 0200 to 0330 hours. Control plots were not exposed to artificial light.

The average number of days that reproductive development was delayed beyond the control was twice as great for the every-night treatments as for the every-other-night treatments. Illumination from sunset to sunrise delayed reproductive development significantly more than the treatments of night interruption for 1.5 hours. Night interruption near the end of the dark period (0200 to 0330 hours) delayed reproductive development more than the earlier interruptions.

The results did not support the hypothesis that light treatments every other night would delay reproductive development as much as every-night interruptions. The lighting regime needed to delay reproductive development will depend on the photoperiod requirements of the cultivars and duration of the delay that is desired.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0011-183X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2367  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Posudin, Y. (n.d.) url  doi
openurl 
  Title Measurement of Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 368-370  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract Digital photography is based on the conversion of light by sensitive matrix (array of electronic photodetectors) to capture the image which is then digitized and stored as a computer file for further processing and printing. The spectral sensitivity of the cameras is in good agreement with the spectrum of action of the photosensitive hormone melatonin. Digital photography can be used to quantify light pollution acting on the physiology of living organisms. The chapter discusses the principles of spectrophotometry. A portable spectrophotometer for the measurement of light pollution is proposed by Cinzano. It consists of a cooled CCDcamera and a small spectrographic head which is equipped with a De Amici prism composed of two external crown prisms and an inner Flint prism. Sky quality meter (SQM) is a portable photometer for measuring sky brightness and for light pollution monitoring. This device collects the light from a wide solid angle.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 967  
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Author Mann, M.; Melaas, E.; Malik, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 8 Issue 9 Pages 711  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; NPP-VIIRS; VIIRS-DNB; India; South Asia  
  Abstract Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1515  
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Author Minnaar, C.; Boyles, J.G.; Minnaar, I.A.; Sole, C.L.; McKechnie, A.E.; McKenzie, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stacking the odds: light pollution may shift the balance in an ancient predator-prey arms race Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 52 Issue 2 Pages 522-531  
  Keywords Ecology; animals; bats; insects; predation; Neoromicia capensis; moths; Cape serotine bat; co-evolution; eared moth; Lepidoptera; predator–prey interactions; prey selection  
  Abstract 1. Artificial night lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, co-evolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale.

2. We combined experimental and mathematical approaches to determine effects of light pollution on a free-living bat–insect community. We compared prey selection by Cape serotine bats Neoromicia capensis in naturally unlit and artificially lit conditions using a manipulative field experiment, and developed a probabilistic model based on a suite of prey-selection factors to explain differences in observed diet.

3.Moth consumption by N. capensis was low under unlit conditions (mean percentage volume ± SD: 5·91 ± 6·25%), while moth consumption increased sixfold (mean percentage volume ± SD: 35·42 ± 17·90%) under lit conditions despite a decrease in relative moth abundance. Predictive prey-selection models that included high-efficacy estimates for eared-moth defensive behaviour found most support given diet data for bats in unlit conditions. Conversely, models that estimated eared-moth defensive behaviour as absent or low found more support given diet data for bats in lit conditions. Our models therefore suggest the increase in moth consumption was a result of light-induced, decreased eared-moth defensive behaviour.

4. Policy implications. In the current context of unyielding growth in global light pollution, we predict that specialist moth-eating bats and eared moths will face ever-increasing challenges to survival through increased resource competition and predation risk, respectively. Lights should be developed to be less attractive to moths, with the goal of reducing effects on moth behaviour. Unfortunately, market preference for broad-spectrum lighting and possible effects on other taxa make development of moth-friendly lighting improbable. Mitigation should therefore focus on the reduction of temporal, spatial and luminance redundancy in outdoor lighting. Restriction of light inside nature reserves and urban greenbelts can help maintain dark refugia for moth-eating bats and moths, and may become important for their persistence.
 
  Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, South Africa  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1085  
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Author Stone, E.L.; Harris, S.; Jones, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impacts of artificial lighting on bats: a review of challenges and solutions Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; bats  
  Abstract Light pollution is a major emerging issue in biodiversity conservation, and has important implications for policy development and strategic planning. Although research is now addressing the negative impacts of anthropogenic noise on biota, less attention has been paid to the effects of light pollution. Changes in lighting technology have led to a diverse range of emerging low energy light types and a trend towards the increased use of white light. Light pollution affects ecological interactions across a range of taxa and has adverse effects on behaviours such as foraging, reproduction and communication. Almost a quarter of bat species globally are threatened and the key underlying threat to populations is pressure on resources from increasing human populations. Being nocturnal, bats are among the taxa most likely to be affected by light pollution. In this paper we provide an overview of the current trends in artificial lighting followed by a review of the current evidence of the impacts of lighting on bat behaviour, particularly foraging, commuting, emergence, roosting and hibernation. We discuss taxon-specific effects and potential cumulative ecosystem level impacts. We conclude by summarising some potential strategies to minimise the impacts of lighting on bats and identify key gaps in knowledge and priority areas for future research.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1112  
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