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Author Posudin, Y. (n.d.)
Title Measurement of Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 368-370
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract Digital photography is based on the conversion of light by sensitive matrix (array of electronic photodetectors) to capture the image which is then digitized and stored as a computer file for further processing and printing. The spectral sensitivity of the cameras is in good agreement with the spectrum of action of the photosensitive hormone melatonin. Digital photography can be used to quantify light pollution acting on the physiology of living organisms. The chapter discusses the principles of spectrophotometry. A portable spectrophotometer for the measurement of light pollution is proposed by Cinzano. It consists of a cooled CCDcamera and a small spectrographic head which is equipped with a De Amici prism composed of two external crown prisms and an inner Flint prism. Sky quality meter (SQM) is a portable photometer for measuring sky brightness and for light pollution monitoring. This device collects the light from a wide solid angle.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 967
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Author Mann, M.; Melaas, E.; Malik, A.
Title Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 8 Issue 9 Pages 711
Keywords Remote Sensing; NPP-VIIRS; VIIRS-DNB; India; South Asia
Abstract Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.
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ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1515
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Author Boyce, P.R.; Gutkowski, J.M.
Title The if, why and what of street lighting and street crime: A review Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 103-112
Keywords Society; Safety
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1009
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Author Ringwald, R.; Rönitzsch, H.; Riedel, M.
Title Praxishandbuch Öffentliche Beleuchtung – Wirtschaftlichkeit, Recht, Technik Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication 1. Aufl. DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., hrsg., Berlin Wien Zürich: Beuth Verlags GmbH. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1058
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Author Minnaar, C.; Boyles, J.G.; Minnaar, I.A.; Sole, C.L.; McKechnie, A.E.; McKenzie, A.
Title Stacking the odds: light pollution may shift the balance in an ancient predator-prey arms race Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 52 Issue 2 Pages 522-531
Keywords Ecology; animals; bats; insects; predation; Neoromicia capensis; moths; Cape serotine bat; co-evolution; eared moth; Lepidoptera; predator–prey interactions; prey selection
Abstract 1. Artificial night lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, co-evolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale.

2. We combined experimental and mathematical approaches to determine effects of light pollution on a free-living bat–insect community. We compared prey selection by Cape serotine bats Neoromicia capensis in naturally unlit and artificially lit conditions using a manipulative field experiment, and developed a probabilistic model based on a suite of prey-selection factors to explain differences in observed diet.

3.Moth consumption by N. capensis was low under unlit conditions (mean percentage volume ± SD: 5·91 ± 6·25%), while moth consumption increased sixfold (mean percentage volume ± SD: 35·42 ± 17·90%) under lit conditions despite a decrease in relative moth abundance. Predictive prey-selection models that included high-efficacy estimates for eared-moth defensive behaviour found most support given diet data for bats in unlit conditions. Conversely, models that estimated eared-moth defensive behaviour as absent or low found more support given diet data for bats in lit conditions. Our models therefore suggest the increase in moth consumption was a result of light-induced, decreased eared-moth defensive behaviour.

4. Policy implications. In the current context of unyielding growth in global light pollution, we predict that specialist moth-eating bats and eared moths will face ever-increasing challenges to survival through increased resource competition and predation risk, respectively. Lights should be developed to be less attractive to moths, with the goal of reducing effects on moth behaviour. Unfortunately, market preference for broad-spectrum lighting and possible effects on other taxa make development of moth-friendly lighting improbable. Mitigation should therefore focus on the reduction of temporal, spatial and luminance redundancy in outdoor lighting. Restriction of light inside nature reserves and urban greenbelts can help maintain dark refugia for moth-eating bats and moths, and may become important for their persistence.
Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, South Africa
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1085
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