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Author Robertson, B.A., Horváth, G.
Title Color polarization vision mediates the strength of an evolutionary trap Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (down) Wiley Evolutionary Applications Abbreviated Journal
Volume In press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Evolutionary traps are scenarios in which animals are fooled by rapidly changing conditions into preferring poor-quality resources over those that better improve survival and reproductive success. The maladaptive attraction of aquatic insects to artificial sources of horizontally polarized light (e.g., glass buildings, asphalt roads) has become a first model system by which scientists can investigate the behavioral mechanisms that cause traps to occur. We employ this field-based system to experimentally investigate (a) in which portion(s) of the spectrum are polarizationally water-imitating reflectors attractive to nocturnal terrestrial and aquatics insects, and (b) which modern lamp types result in greater attraction in this typical kind of nocturnal polarized light pollution. We found that most aquatic taxa exhibited preferences for lamps based upon their color spectra, most having lowest preference for lamps emitting blue and red light. Yet, despite previously established preference for higher degrees of polarization of reflected light, most aquatic insect families were attracted to traps based upon their unpolarized spectrum. Chironomid midges, alone, showed a preference for the color of lamplight in both the horizontally polarized and unpolarized spectra indicating only this family has evolved to use light in this color range as a source of information to guide its nocturnal habitat selection. These results demonstrate that the color of artificial lighting can exacerbate or reduce its attractiveness to aquatic insects, but that the strength of attractiveness of nocturnal evolutionary traps, and so their demographic consequences, is primarily driven by unpolarized light pollution. This focuses management attention on limiting broad-spectrum light pollution, as well as its intentional deployment to attract insects back to natural habitats.
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Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2076
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Author Truscott, Z.; Booth, D.T.; Limpus, C.J.
Title The effect of on-shore light pollution on sea-turtle hatchlings commencing their off-shore swim Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication (down) Wildlife Research Abbreviated Journal Wildl. Res.
Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 127
Keywords Animals
Abstract Context: Off-shore recruitment impairment of sea-turtle hatchlings because of light pollution is a growing concern to conservation of sea-turtle population throughout the world. Studies have focussed on sea-turtle hatchling sea-finding behaviour, and ignored the possible effect that on-shore lighting might have on hatchlings after they have entered the sea.

Aims: We experimentally evaluated the effect that on-shore light pollution has on the swimming behaviour of green turtle hatchlings once they have entered the sea and begun swimming off-shore. We also estimated the decrease in off-shore recruitment of hatchlings as a result of light pollution disruption of the off-shore swim.

Methods: Hatchling misorientation rates were quantified by releasing marked hatchlings to the sea from different land-based locations adjacent to light-polluted beach areas under a variety of environmental conditions. The beach in light-polluted regions was then searched for marked hatchlings returning to shore from the sea.

Key results: Misorientation rates were highest in trials conducted during moonless nights (66.7% of trials had some hatchlings return to shore) and lowest during trials conducted during moonlit nights (no trials had hatchlings return to shore). Green turtle hatchling off-shore recruitment for the entire 2014–15 nesting season at Heron Island was estimated to decrease 1.0 –2.4% as a result of on-shore lights disrupting hatchling off-shore swimming behaviour.

Conclusions: On moonless nights, sea-turtle hatchlings after having successfully completed their journey from nest to sea and entered the sea can be lured back to shore again by shore-based light pollution and, this will decrease their off-shore recruitment success.

Implications: To ensure maximum off-shore recruitment of sea-turtle hatchlings, on-shore light pollution adjacent to nesting beaches needs to be minimised so as to minimise misorientation and disorientation of hatchlings while on the beach and in near-shore waters.
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ISSN 1035-3712 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2448
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Author Melville, H.I.A.S.; Conway, W.C.; Hardin, J.B.; Comer, C.E.; Morrison, M.L.
Title Abiotic variables influencing the nocturnal movements of bobcats and coyotes Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (down) Wildlife Biology Abbreviated Journal Wildlife Biology
Volume 2020 Issue 3 Pages
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract Despite the increasing spatial, temporal and dietary overlap between bobcats Lynx rufus and coyotes Canis latrans, these species live sympatrically throughout much of North America. To determine if differential activity patterns relative to abiotic variables might influence interspecific interactions, we investigated whether these species responded differentially to crepuscular and nocturnal abiotic variables in Texas. Using GPS collars, we calculated hourly movements from sequential locations, and compared bobcat and coyote movements relative to sex, season, moonlight intensity, night period, crepuscularity and temperature. We used generalized linear mixed effects models (GLMM) to investigate the responses of bobcats and coyotes to variables associated to their nocturnal movements. Temperature and its interactions with various abiotic variables influenced bobcat movements. Biological season and its interactions with other abiotic variables influenced coyote movements. Bobcats moved shorter hourly distances than coyotes. Female bobcats moved shorter hourly distances than males. Moonlight intensity seemed to influence coyotes but not bobcats. Differential movements between bobcats and coyotes relative to night period could possibly be due behavioral avoidance of coyotes by bobcats. Reduced crepuscular activity by coyotes may be behavioral avoidance of humans. Differential responses to nocturnal variables may dampen competitive interactions between bobcats and coyotes.
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ISSN 0909-6396 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3052
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Author Ashford, O.M.
Title A portable cloud searchlight Type Journal Article
Year 1947 Publication (down) Weather Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue Pages 103-104
Keywords Remote Sensing
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2044
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Author Peregrym, M.; Kabaš, E.; Tashev, A.; Dragićević, S.; Pénzesné Kónya, E.; Savchenko, M.
Title Is Artificial Light at Night Dangerous for the Balkan Strict Protected Areas at Present? Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (down) Water, Air, & Soil Pollution Abbreviated Journal Water Air Soil Pollut
Volume 231 Issue 2 Pages in press
Keywords Conservation; Ecology
Abstract The Balkan Peninsula has rich biodiversity with a large number of endemic species; therefore, a part of its territory has been recognized as a World Biodiversity Hotspot. Despite nature conservation efforts and development of nature conservation networks in countries of the region, anthropogenic influence on natural and semi natural ecosystems is increasing. Moreover,new types of disturbance and pollution arise, and one of the more recent being artificial light at night (ALAN)which has serious consequences on reproduction, navigation, foraging, habitat selection, communication, trophic and social interactions of the biota. We have estimated the level of ecological light pollution in the strictprotected areas of the Republic of Serbia, the Republic of Bulgaria, and Montenegro using available GoogleEarth Pro tools, and the New World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness (2016) in the form of a kmz layer. The research has covered 13 National Parks, 11 Nature Parks and 55 Reserves. Our results showed widespread incursion of ALAN within strict protected areas in the studied region that has also been noted for some other countries and regions too. However, the level of light pollution is lower here, than in the most part of Continental Europe, and there are a few areas in each country where the night sky above National and Natural Parks is almost dark. These territories have a special value for nature conservation;therefore, it is important to save the dark night sky there.
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ISSN 0049-6979 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2853
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