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Author Deal, S.
Title Striking a Balance Between Starry Skies and Urban Illumination Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (down) Water Log Abbreviated Journal
Volume 40 Issue 2 Pages
Keywords Planning; Ecology; Skyglow; Commentary
Abstract For countless centuries, people have looked up at the night sky in awe and wonder. However, the starry night skies have been increasingly subsumed by ambient light from cities. Many urban areas across the world are over illuminated, leaving city dwellers unable to take in the natural day-night pattern of the skies. This disruption is not merely a setback for stargazers; excessive lighting from city streets can have an adverse impact on wildlife and human welfare. Sea turtle hatchlings, which instinctively crawl towards the night sky to reach the safety of the ocean, may be enticed by the stronger

glow of nearby streetlights. Artificial lights also steer migratory bird species off course and interfere with their ability to detect ideal conditions for nesting.

1 Overly bright lighting in residential areas can disrupt human sleeping

habits as well. These impacts associated with excess lighting

show that cities have an important role to play in regulating

lighting sources
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ISSN ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2944
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Author Xu, C.; Wang, H.-J.; Yu, Q.; Wang, H.-Z.; Liang, X.-M.; Liu, M.; Jeppesen, E.
Title Effects of Artificial LED Light on the Growth of Three Submerged Macrophyte Species during the Low-Growth Winter Season: Implications for Macrophyte Restoration in Small Eutrophic Lakes Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (down) Water Abbreviated Journal Water
Volume 11 Issue 7 Pages 1512
Keywords Plants
Abstract Eutrophication of lakes is becoming a global environmental problem, leading to, among other things, rapid reproduction of phytoplankton, increased turbidity, loss of submerged macrophytes, and the recovery of these plants following nutrient loading reduction is often delayed. Artificial light supplement could potentially be a useful method to help speeding up recovery. In this study, three common species of submerged macrophytes, Vallisneria natans, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum, were exposed to three LED light treatments (blue, red and white) and shaded (control) for 100 days (from 10 November 2016 to 18 January 2017) in 12 tanks holding 800 L of water. All the three LED light treatments promoted growth of the three macrophyte species in terms of shoot number, length and dry mass. The three light treatments differed in their effects on the growth of the plants; generally, the red light had the strongest promoting effects, followed by blue and white. The differences in light effects may be caused by the different photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of the lights, as indicated by an observed relationship of PPFD with the growth variables. The three species also responded differently to the light treatments, V. natans and C. demersum showing higher growth than M. spicatum. Our findings demonstrate that artificial light supplement in the low-growth winter season can promote growth and recovery of submerged macrophytes and hence potentially enhance their competitiveness against phytoplankton in the following spring. More studies, however, are needed to elucidate if LED light treatment is a potential restoration method in small lakes, when the growth of submerged macrophytes are delayed following a sufficiently large external nutrient loading reduction for a shift to a clear macrophyte state to have a potential to occur. Our results may also be of relevance when elucidating the role of artificial light from cities on the ecosystem functioning of lakes in urban areas.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2073-4441 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2606
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Author Hoglund, J.; Mitkus, M.; Olsson, P.; Lind, O.; Drews, A.; Bloch, N.I.; Kelber, A.; Strandh, M.
Title Owls lack UV-sensitive cone opsin and red oil droplets, but see UV light at night: retinal transcriptomes and ocular media transmittance Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (down) Vision Research Abbreviated Journal Vision Res
Volume 158 Issue Pages 109-119
Keywords Animals; Vision; Birds; owls; Short-eared Owl; tawny owl; boreal owl; Long-eared Owl; Asio otus; Asio flammeus; Strix aluco; Aegolius funereus; cones; Photoreceptors
Abstract Most diurnal birds have cone-dominated retinae and tetrachromatic colour vision based on ultra-violet/violet-sensitive UV/V cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), S cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 2 (SWS2), M cones expressing medium wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2) and L cones expressing long wavelength-sensitive opsin (LWS). Double cones (D) express LWS but do not contribute to colour vision. Each cone is equipped with an oil droplet, transparent in UV/V cones, but pigmented by carotenoids: galloxanthin in S, zeaxanthin in M, astaxanthin in L and a mixture in D cones. Owls (Strigiformes) are crepuscular or nocturnal birds with rod-dominated retinae and optical adaptations for high sensitivity. For eight species, the absence of functional SWS1 opsin has recently been documented, functional RH2 opsin was absent in three of these. Here we confirm the absence of SWS1 transcripts for the Long-eared owl (Asio otus) and demonstrate its absence for the Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus), Tawny owl (Strix aluco) and Boreal owl (Aegolius funereus). All four species had transcripts of RH2, albeit with low expression. All four species express all enzymes needed to produce galloxanthin, but lack CYP2J19 expression required to produce astaxanthin from dietary precursors. We also present ocular media transmittance of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and Short-eared owl and predict spectral sensitivities of all photoreceptors of the Tawny owl. We conclude that owls, despite lacking UV/V cones, can detect UV light. This increases the sensitivity of their rod vision allowing them, for instance, to see UV-reflecting feathers as brighter signals at night.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0042-6989 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30825468 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2245
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Author Lapostolle, D.; Challéat, S.
Title Lutter contre la pollution lumineuse: Trois processus de valorisation de l’obscurité dans les territoires français Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (down) VertigO Abbreviated Journal vertigo
Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages
Keywords Society; Light pollution; France; Europe
Abstract The degradation of darkness through the use of artificial light at night (ALAN) in and around human infrastructures is termed light pollution. This pollution is intrinsically related to urbanization and spills out from urban areas to affect rural areas and protected areas. The fight against light pollution is being organized in several countries where local communities are experimenting with environmental policies to protect darkness. The challenge bears on both the preservation of biodiversity and the energy transition. In France, a few pioneering rural areas are experimenting with mechanisms that include this dual implication. Two of them provide the case study for this article. We show how these areas turn darkness into a specific resource. We identify three specification processes. The first, obeying an anthropocentric utilitarian rationale, is part of the “economicization” of the environment in the line of shallow ecology. The second, following a rationale of ecocentric conservation, is part of the radical greening of the economy, in line with deep ecology. The third follows an integrated social-ecological system rationale enshrining the interdependence between development and planning and the preservation of biodiversity and energy savings. Specification controversies beset local areas. These areas become incubation rooms, that is, spaces for resolving these controversies that are reflected in a transition operator enabling the local area to take a fresh trajectory in terms of development and planning.
Address Aménagement, UMR CNRS 6049 ThéMA, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2 boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France; dany.lapostolle(at)u-bourgogne.fr
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language French Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1492-8442 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2784
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Author Benito, B.; Guillamón, M.-D.; Martínez-Córdoba, P.-J.
Title Determinants of efficiency improvement in the Spanish public lighting sector Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (down) Utilities Policy Abbreviated Journal Utilities Policy
Volume 64 Issue Pages 101026
Keywords Lighting; Economics
Abstract This research analyzes the factors that can improve the efficiency of public lighting. First, the annual and inter-annual efficiency levels are calculated. Second, the effects of a set of environmental variables on these efficiency levels are checked with a truncated regression model. The results show that public management is more efficient than private or mixed management. Higher tourism, stronger local governments, and more hours of sunlight appear to improve efficiency. Local governments with the highest budgetary revenues and the most urbanized area experience the greatest improvement in efficiency year after year.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0957-1787 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2840
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