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Author Croft, T.A.
Title The brightness of lights on Earth at night, digitally recorded by DMSP satellite Type Report
Year 1979 Publication (down) USGS Numbered Series Abbreviated Journal
Volume 80-167 Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The U.S. Air Force has operated its Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) for nearly a decade, and film images from the system have been openly available since 1973. Films are well suited for the study of weather, and users of such films have derived much useful data. For many potential remote sensing applications, however, a quantitative measurement of the brightness of the imaged light patterns is needed, and it cannot be extracted with adequte accuracy from the films. Such information is contained in the telemetry from the spacecraft and is retained on digital tapes, which store the images for a few days while they await filming. For practical reasons, it has not heretofore been feasible for the Air Force to provide a remote-sensing user with these digital data, and the quantitative brightness information has been lost with the erasure of tapes for re-use.

For the purpose of evaluation of tapes as a means for remote sensing, the Air Force recently did provide to the author six examples containing records of nighttime DMSP imagery similar to that which has previously 1 been evaluated by SRI International in a film format. The digital data create many new applications for these images, owing to a combination of several factors, the most important of which are the preservation of photometric information and of full spatial resolution. In this evaluation, stress has been placed upon determination of the broad potential value of the data rather than the full exploitation of any one aspect of it. The effort was guided by an objective to develop handling methods for the vast body of numbers--methods which will be practical for use in a research or engineering environment where budgets are limited, and specialized capabilities and image reproduction equipment has not already been developed. We report the degree of success obtained in this effort, pointing out the relative strengths and the relative limitations, as compared to the sophisticated, weather-oriented data processing which is well suited for the Air Force requirements.

Both geometric and photometric calibration methods are evaluated. An image can be considered as a 3-dimensional array, X, Y, Z, in which X and Y are the coordinates of a picture element (pixel) and Z is the brightness at that location. A method of approach to handling these parameters, particularly Y and Z, is developed in a form quite different from that which serves the operational applications.

The user of digital data will need the film images which are generated by the Air Force from the same data as is provided on digital tape. In the first stages of analysis, the films provide both a convenient index and a guide to identification of large patterns in the data. Additionally, the infrared (8 to 13 0 film provides a valuable indicator of cloud cover.

Two general conclusions are drawn from this study. Firstly, the digital DMSP data have great potential value but their cost, in terms of the interruption of the present operational routine, is quite high. Therefore, if a program is undertaken to provide for the open availability of an archive of digital records, great care must be exercised in selecting only those records which have unusually high value in order that the effort will be cost-effective. Secondly, it is concluded that several aspects of the program, well designed for Air Force operational purposes, are not adapted to earth-sensing needs. This is probably inevitable, since the two applications are largely different and in some ways incompatible. For example, the nighttime visual sensor saturates in the center of major cities and in moderately large fires (such as gas flares). This saturation prevents the analyst from integrating photometric parameters. For weather observation, this inability is unimportant, and acceptance of such saturation makes feasible a decrease in the data rate.

Such limitations in the data will probably be overcome only through modifying the existing system or the implementation of a similar system designed specifically to serve earth-sensing needs.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2384
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Author Edensor, T.
Title The Gloomy City: Rethinking the Relationship between Light and Dark Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (down) Urban Studies Abbreviated Journal
Volume 52 Issue 3 Pages 422-438
Keywords Society
Abstract Given geography’s neglect of illuminated and dark space, this paper explores the various qualities of darkness that have contributed to the experience of the city. In recent history, darkness has been conceptualised negatively, for instance, with the ‘dark side’ and the ‘forces of darkness’ conceived as the opposite of that which enlightens and illuminates. Perhaps such metaphors testify to earlier urban conditions in which perils of all sorts lurked in the nocturnal city and doors were closed when darkness fell. Yet modern illumination has transformed nocturnal urban experience, producing cityscapes of regulation, hierarchical selectiveness, consumption, fantasy and imagination. However, this article suggests that the more positive qualities of darkness have been overlooked: the potential for conviviality and intimacy to be fostered in the dark, the aesthetics and atmospherics of darkness and shadow, the possibilities for apprehending the world through other senses and the dismissal of the star-saturated sky.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 739
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Author Ebbensgaard, C.L.
Title Standardised difference: Challenging uniform lighting through standards and regulation Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (down) Urban Studies Abbreviated Journal Urban Studies
Volume in press Issue Pages 0042098019866568
Keywords Regulation; Lighting; Conservation; Darkness; Planning; Society
Abstract Artificial lighting has received increased attention from urban scholars and geographers in recent years. It is celebrated for its experimental aesthetics and experiential qualities and critiqued for its adverse effects on biological life and the environment. Yet scholars and practitioners unite in their disapproval of uniform and homogenous lighting that follows from standardised lighting technologies and design principles. Absent from debates in urban scholarship and geography, however, is any serious consideration of how lighting designers respond to such standardised measures and regulations. In this article, I address this lack of academic attention by exploring how designers overturn the restrictive challenges posed by the standards and regulations of the design and planning process. Drawing on interviews with designers involved in the lighting design of a mixed-use redevelopment project in Canning Town, East London, I demonstrate how the interpretation and translation of lighting standards and regulations resist the tendency to predetermine design aesthetics and functions. By drawing attention away from the technical specifications and numerical values that are prescribed in standards and regulations, and towards lighting’s experiential and performative effects, the article argues that lighting designers can play an important role in challenging how standards and regulations are measured, defined and maintained. Calling on urban scholars to play a more prominent role in foregrounding this process of translation, I suggest that standards and regulations can provide frameworks within which luminous differentiation and preservation of darkness can be achieved, playing a potentially crucial role in ensuring a socially and environmentally sustainable transition to energy efficient lighting.
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ISSN 0042-0980 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2678
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Author Checa, J.; Nel·lo, O.
Title Urban Intensities. The Urbanization of the Iberian Mediterranean Coast in the Light of Nighttime Satellite Images of the Earth Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (down) Urban Science Abbreviated Journal Urban Science
Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 115
Keywords Remote Sensing; Tourism
Abstract The contribution shares the approach of critical urban studies that have conceptualized urbanization more as a process than as a sum of spatial forms. Thus, the contribution studies the urbanization process not only from the point of view of the physical occupation of land but also considers changes in the intensity of the uses of space. To fulfill this aim, the new sources of nocturnal satellite images are particularly useful. These allow us to observe the intensity of urban uses both in terms of their distribution over space and their recurrence over time. The research focuses on the Iberian Mediterranean coast and permits the verification of the intensity of the urban uses of the space for the whole of this area and their seasonal variations throughout the year. The source of the study are the nighttime satellite images of the Earth for the 2012–2017 period from the NASA SNPP satellite equipped with the VIIRS-DNB instrument. By establishing a threshold of urban light the research shows that those districts with the greatest extensions of urban light do not necessarily correspond with the most densely populated areas. Similarly the absence of urban light does not necessarily indicate the absence of urban uses. Finally, the variations of intensity of light prove to be a good indicator of seasonal variations of activity in tourist areas.
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ISSN 2413-8851 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2120
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Author Roychowdhury, K.; Jones, S.; Arrowsmith, C.; Reinke, K.
Title Indian census using satellite images: Can DMSP-OLS data be used for small administrative regions? Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication (down) Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), 2011 Joint Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 153 - 156
Keywords Remote Sensing; India; South Asia; DMSP; DMSP-OLS
Abstract India conducts its census every ten years. Census data is collected manually in India with enumerators visiting every household in the country. Being such a vast country (in terms of area) and with a population of more than 1 billion, manual data collection is a laborious and expensive process. In response, this paper proposes a surrogate census method using DMSP-OLS night-time images. The study focuses on smaller administrative regions such as sub-districts (or taluks as they are known in the country) in the state of Maharashtra. Models are proposed using selected census metrics, and mean and standard deviation of stable lights and brightness information as obtained from the satellite images. The adjusted r2 values range from 0.2 to 0.8 at 95% confidence interval, with the majority of the metrics being moderately correlated (with r2 between 0.4 and 0.7). Generally it was found that the observed lights and brightness of big rural settlements from DMSP-OLS images have the potential for predicting certain census metrics. However, unlike larger areas such as districts where DMSP-OLS night-time images adequately predict census metrics, at the sub-district level the results need to be supplemented and validated with other information sources such as survey reports.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 490
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