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Author Bassani, M.; Mutani, G.
Title Effects of Environmental Lighting Conditions on Operating Speeds on Urban Arterials Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication (down) Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record
Volume 2298 Issue 1 Pages 78-87
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety
Abstract Driver behavior is influenced by environmental lighting conditions on roads; in the literature, many studies report a reduced night–day accident ratio following improvements to lighting on different types of roads, with the results classified by severity and type of accident. Few studies, however, report the influence of lighting conditions on driver speed. This study investigates the principal factors that influence driver speed on arterial roads in Turin, Italy. The aim of this study was to analyze driver speed under different daylight and nighttime lighting conditions. Six arterial roads were selected for observation and the measurement of speeds and illuminance on the pavement surface. The results showed that illuminance, in addition to factors such as lane position, lane width, and the relevant speed limit, should be considered a variable that can influence driver speed. The study used a regression equation to predict operating speeds (V85) on urban arterials; the corresponding sensitivity analysis has made it possible to quantify the effects of the aforementioned variables on operating speed under different environmental lighting conditions.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2872
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Author Flannagan, M.J.; Sivak, M.; Traube, E.C.; Kojima, S.
Title Effects of Overall Low-Beam Intensity on Seeing Distance in the Presence of Glare Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication (down) Transportation Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Transportation Human Factors
Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 313-330
Keywords Public Safety; Vision
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that current low-beam headlamps do not provide adequate seeing distance for safety. Could this situation be improved by providing more total light from low-beam headlamps, leaving the relative distribution of light unchanged? Although such a proposal is probably not the best practical solution, it is important to consider some of the visual consequences of a general increase in light to analyze the overall problem of low-beam headlighting.

In a nighttime field study we measured seeing distance in the presence of glare as a function of headlamp intensity, always varying the intensity of the seeing light and glare light by the same proportion. Increasing intensity by a factor of about 3.8 increased seeing distance by about 17% for both young and old drivers. This result is consistent with predictions from quantitative vision modeling using veiling luminance to represent the disabling effects of glare. We also collected subjective estimates of discomfort glare and found, as expected, that the higher intensities produced substantially more discomfort.

Our findings suggest that, if objective visual performance is the only criterion, there is no clear upper limit to how intense low-beam headlamps should be. However, there may be a level at which people simply will not tolerate the subjectively discomforting effects of glare, or at which glare indirectly affects objective performance through its effects on subjective comfort. Because subjective discomfort, rather than objective visual performance, may be the limiting consideration for setting maximum glare levels, more research should be done to understand the nature and consequences of discomfort glare, including possible effects of subjective comfort on objective visual behavior.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1093-9741 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2127
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Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Timing of light exposure affects mood and brain circuits Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication (down) Translational Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Transl Psychiatry
Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages e1017
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract Temporal organization of physiology is critical for human health. In the past, humans experienced predictable periods of daily light and dark driven by the solar day, which allowed for entrainment of intrinsic circadian rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycles. Since the adoption of electric light, however, pervasive exposure to nighttime lighting has blurred the boundaries of day and night, making it more difficult to synchronize biological processes. Many systems are under circadian control, including sleep-wake behavior, hormone secretion, cellular function and gene expression. Circadian disruption by nighttime light perturbs those processes and is associated with increasing incidence of certain cancers, metabolic dysfunction and mood disorders. This review focuses on the role of artificial light at night in mood regulation, including mechanisms through which aberrant light exposure affects the brain. Converging evidence suggests that circadian disruption alters the function of brain regions involved in emotion and mood regulation. This occurs through direct neural input from the clock or indirect effects, including altered neuroplasticity, neurotransmission and clock gene expression. Recently, the aberrant light exposure has been recognized for its health effects. This review summarizes the evidence linking aberrant light exposure to mood.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Group, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2158-3188 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28140399; PMCID:PMC5299389 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2446
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Author Hungerford, H.B.; Spangler, P.J.; Walker, N.A.
Title Subaquatic light traps for insects and other animal organisms Type Journal Article
Year 1955 Publication (down) Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 387-407
Keywords Animals
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2431
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Author Kumar, A.; Shaw, R.
Title Transforming rural light and dark under planetary urbanisation: Comparing ordinary countrysides in India and the<scp>UK</scp> Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (down) Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers Abbreviated Journal Trans Inst Br Geogr
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Society; Psychology
Abstract Contemporary global lightscapes are becoming increasingly complex and varied, creating an unusual geography of technological development and diffusion that defies many easy narratives of global interconnectivity. Specifically, new LED lighting technologies are being created through rural experimentation in both Global North and Global South. This makes lighting, and darkness, an interesting lens through which to intervene in debates on the relationship between city, countryside, and planet, specifically addressing the theoretical developments of comparative urbanism and planetary urbanisation. Heading calls to develop conceptual material from both Global North and Global South, we use case studies from Bihar (India) and the North Pennines (UK) to argue that the changing lighting technologies and practices show how “ordinary countrysides” are contributing to new planetary ways of living. We argue that while there are differences in how darkness and the implementation of artificial lighting are perceived in these sites, there are similarities that reveal an ongoing rural form of planetary living, outside the claims of urbanisation. Particularly, rural lives are marked by a closer connection to the planet, as expressed through experiences of rural darkness. Furthermore, in both sites the tenuous grasp on infrastructure and state services seems to reveal a shared rural experience. These findings suggest shared rural experiences of globalisation, but that the socio‐spatial contexts of places remain important in understanding their location within global systems. Furthermore, we join recent calls to suggest that further exploration of the difference between “global” and “planetary” might add nuance to theoretical trends in urban studies, rural studies, and geography.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0020-2754 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2808
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