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Author Vaaja, M. T., Kurkela, M., Maksimainen, M., Virtanen, J., Kukko, A., Lehtola, V. V., Hyyppä, J., & Hyyppä, H.
Title MOBILE MAPPING OF NIGHT-TIME ROAD ENVIRONMENT LIGHTING CONDITIONS Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (down) The Photogrammetric Journal of Finland Abbreviated Journal
Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Lighting; Remote Sensing
Abstract The measurement of 3D geometry for road environments is one of the main applications of mobile mapping systems (MMS). We present mobile mapping applied to a night-time road environment. We integrate the measurement of luminances into a georeferenced 3D point cloud. The luminance measurement and the 3D point cloud acquired with an MMS are used in assessing road environment lighting conditions. Luminance (cd/m2) was measured with a luminance-calibrated panoramic camera system, and point cloud was produced by laser scanners. The relative orientation between the GNSS, IMU, camera, and laser scanner sensors was solved in order to

integrate the data sets into the same coordinate system. Hence, the georeferenced luminance values are transferable into geographic information systems (GIS). The method provides promising results for future road lighting assessment. In addition, this article demonstrates the night-time mobile mapping principle applied to a road section in Helsinki, Finland. Finally, we discuss the

future applications of mobile-mapped luminance point clouds.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2650
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Author Lazar, M.
Title Shedding Light on the Global Distribution of Economic Activity Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication (down) The Open Geography Journal Abbreviated Journal Togeogj
Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages 147-160
Keywords Economics; Remote Sensing
Abstract Collection of data on economic variables, especially sub-national income levels, is problematic, due to various shortcomings in the data collection process. Additionally, the informal economy is often excluded from official statistics. Nighttime lights satellite imagery and the LandScan population grid provide an alternative means for measuring economic activity. We have developed a model for creating a disaggregated map of estimated total (formal plus informal) economic activity for countries and states of the world. Regression models were developed to calibrate the sum of lights to official measures of economic activity at the sub-national level for China, India, Mexico, and the United States and at the national level for other countries of the world, and subsequently unique coefficients were derived. Multiplying the unique coefficients with the sum of lights provided estimates of total economic activity, which were spatially distributed to generate a spatially disaggregated 1 km2 map of total economic activity.
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ISSN 1874-9232 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2440
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Author Garstang, R.H.
Title Mount Wilson Observatory: The Sad Story of Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication (down) The Observatory Abbreviated Journal
Volume 124 Issue Pages 14-21
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The brightness of night sky at the Mount Wilson Observatory has been calculated for the years from 1900 to 2000. Data on the street lighting in Los Angeles City and estimates for light from residences, shops, and businesses have been used to calculate the per capita light-emission rates. These have been used in model brightness calculations with the populations of many cities in the Los Angeles Basin. The results show the relentless increase in night-sky brightness that is continuing at this time.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2538
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Author Garstang, R. H.
Title Light Pollution at Mount Wilson and at Palomar in 1931-32 Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication (down) The Observatory Abbreviated Journal
Volume 122 Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract I present a short summary of an unpublished letter by Joel Stebbins on light pollution at Mount Wilson Observatory and on Palmar Mountain in 1931-32. I analyzed his results and show that the light emission per capita in 1932 – o was about 3*1*10^17 photons s^-1 in the blue region, equivalent to about 220 lumens per head in the visual region. These my be compared with about 1*4*10^18 photons s^-1 in the blue region and about 1000 lumens per head in the visual region for California cities in 1970.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2622
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Author Treanor, P. J.
Title A simple propagation law for artificial night-sky illumination Type Journal Article
Year 1973 Publication (down) The Observatory Abbreviated Journal
Volume 93 Issue Pages 117-120
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The problem of locating new large astronomical observatories in sites which have a suitably dark night sky (artificial excess of the order of omi) is becoming increasingly difficult in Europe and the United States, on account of extensive urban development, the high luminous efficiency of modern discharge lighting, and the scattering of light in an atmosphere contaminated by aerosols. To investigate the artificial illumination of the sky over large regions on the basis of necessarily limited observations, one needs an expression for the zenith brightness produced by towns of known site and distance.

The exact derivation of such a law is exceedingly complex, involving the computation of the radiation transfer in an atmosphere with absorption, multiple scattering, and complicated physical and geometrical parameters. Notwithstanding these difficulties, it is possible to obtain a useful physical insight into the general form of this law by considering a very simplified model, consisting of a homogeneous atmosphere, in which vertical heights are small in relation to the horizontal distances between town and observatory, and which the scattering is limited to a cone of small angle whose axis lies in the direction of the incident beam. The limited scale height and optical thickness of the real atmosphere, and the forward-scattering characteristics of aerosols lend some plausibility to these simplifications.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2633
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