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Author Smith, H.M.; Neaves, L.E.; Divljan, A.
Title Predation on cicadas by an Australian Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus based on DNA evidence Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Australian Zoologist Abbreviated Journal Australian Zoologist
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Historically, reports of insectivory in family Pteropodidae have largely been anecdotal and thought to be an incidental corollary of flying-foxes feeding on plant products. More recent direct observations of flying-foxes catching and consuming insects, as well as advances in techniques that increase our ability to detect dietary items, suggest that this behaviour may be deliberate and more common than previously thought. Usually, multiple insects are consumed, but it appears that flying-foxes hunt and eat them one at a time. However, we have collected and photographed oral ejecta pellets under trees with high flying-fox activity, some containing evidence of multiple masticated insects. Further genetic analysis proved that these pellets came from Grey-headed Flying-foxes Pteropus poliocephalus. We propose that flying-foxes use an array of insect feeding strategies, most likely in response to variation in insect abundance and activity, as well as abiotic factors such as light and temperature.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0067-2238 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2148
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Author Galimberti, J. K.; Pichler, S.; Pleninger, R.
Title Measuring Inequality using Geospatial Data Type Conference Article
Year 2020 Publication (up) AUT Economics Working Paper Series Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The main challenge in studying economic inequality is limited data availability, which is particularly problematic in developing countries. We construct a measure of economic inequality for 234 countries and territories from 1992 to 2013 using satellite data on nighttime light emissions as well as gridded population data. Key methodological innovations include the use of varying levels of data aggregation, and a parsimonious calibration of the lights-prosperity relationship to match traditional inequality measures based on income data. Indeed, we obtain a measure that is significantly correlated with cross-country variation in income inequality. Subsequently, we provide three applications of the data in the fields of health economics and international finance. Our results show that light- and income-based inequality measures lead to similar results in terms of cross-country correlations, but not for the dynamics of inequality measure can capture more enduring features of economic activity that are not directly captured by income.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3232
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Author Marín-Gómez, O.H.; García-Arroyo, M.; Sánchez-Sarria, C.E.; Sosa-López, J.R.; Santiago-Alarcon, D.; MacGregor-Fors, I.
Title Nightlife in the city: drivers of the occurrence and vocal activity of a tropical owl Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (up) Avian Research Abbreviated Journal Avian Res
Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract Background

Cities differ from non-urban environments by the intensity, scale, and extent of anthropogenic pressures, which can drive the occurrence, physiology, and behavior of the organisms thriving in these settings. Traits as green cover often predict the occurrence patterns of bird species in urban areas. Yet, anthropogenic noise and artificial light at night (ALAN) could also limit the presence and disrupt the behavior of birds. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge about the influence of urbanization through noise and light pollution on nocturnal bird species ecology. In this study, we assessed the role of green cover, noise, and light pollution on the occurrence and vocal activity of the Mottled Owl (Ciccaba virgata) in the city of Xalapa (Mexico).

Methods

We obtained soundscape recordings in 61 independent sites scattered across the city of Xalapa using autonomous recording units. We performed a semi-automated acoustic analysis of the recordings, corroborating all Mottled Owl vocalizations. We calculated two measures of anthropogenic noise at each study site: daily noise (during 24 h) and masking noise (mean noise amplitude at night per site that could mask the owl’s vocalizations). We further performed generalized linear models to relate green cover, ALAN, daily noise, and masking noise in relation to the owl’s occurrence (i.e., detected, undetected). We also ran linear models to assess relationships among the beginning and ending of vocal activity with ALAN, and with the anthropogenic and masking noise levels at the moment of which vocalizations were emitted. Finally, we explored variations of the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl measured as vocalization rate across time.

Results

The presence of Mottled Owls increased with the size of green cover and decreased with increases in both artificial light at night and noise levels. At the temporal scale, green cover was positively related with the ending of the owl’s vocal activity, while daily noise and ALAN levels were not related to the timing and vocal output (i.e., number of vocalizations). Furthermore, the Mottled Owl showed a marked peak of vocal activity before dawn than after dusk. Although anthropogenic noise levels varied significantly across the assessed time, we did not find an association between high vocal output during time periods with lower noise levels.

Conclusions

Spatially, green cover area was positively related with the presence of the Mottled Owl in Xalapa, while high noise and light pollution were related to its absence. At a temporal scale, daily noise and ALAN levels were not related with the timing and vocal output. This suggests that instead of environmental factors, behavioral contexts such as territoriality and mate interactions could drive the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl. Further studies need to incorporate a wider seasonal scale in order to explore the variation of different vocalizations of this species in relation to environmental and biological factors.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2053-7166 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2912
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Author Ali A.A.S., Zakaria S.A., Guan A.C.K., Shun C.J.
Title Lighting for Heritage Building: A Case Study of the Lighting Design Applied on St. George’s Church in George Town, Penang Island Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (up) Awang M., Meor M Fared M. (eds) ICACE 2019. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering Abbreviated Journal
Volume 59 Issue Pages 113-119
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Light is one of the critical aspects of architecture, yet it is one of the understated elements in our daily lives. Light has a significant spot to form events, activities, and memories. Scientific studies have shown that appropriate and proper lighting does not only affect human health but daily human moods as well. Nowadays, lighting fixtures play essential roles in architecture and markets. A proper lighting fixture helps to highlight the structure, textures, and form of the shape of a building. However, the designers tend to focus more on the art aesthetics rather than the conservation ethics, such as the colorful design and the attractive lighting fixtures on the building, while the prime concern should be on realizing the impact of the lighting fixture toward the environment. The objectives of this study are to highlight the issues of the lighting system of the heritage building and suggest some recommendations to meet the requirements for the heritage building for better lighting design. The data for this research was collected using the quantitative method. Thus, as a result, it is found out that lighting design highlights the historical building, and therefore, attracts tourists, which benefit the economy. However, improper lighting installation leads to a negative impact on the society and human health.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2950
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Author Firebaugh, A.; Haynes, K.J.
Title Light pollution may create demographic traps for nocturnal insects Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Basic and Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal Basic and Applied Ecology
Volume 34 Issue Pages 118-125
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light pollution impacts both intra- and inter-specific interactions, such as interactions between mates and predator–prey interactions. In mobile organisms attracted to artificial lights, the effect of light pollution on these interactions may be intensified. If organisms are repelled by artificial lights, effects of light pollution on intra- and inter-specific interactions may be diminished as organisms move away. However, organisms repelled by artificial lights would likely lose suitable habitat as light pollution expands. Thus, we investigated how light pollution affects both net attraction or repulsion of organisms and effects on intra- and inter-specific interactions. In manipulative field studies using fireflies, we found that Photuris versicolor and Photinus pyralis fireflies were lured to artificial (LED) light at night and that both species were less likely to engage in courtship dialogues (bioluminescent flashing) in light-polluted field plots. Light pollution also lowered the mating success of P. pyralis. P. versicolor is known to prey upon P. pyralis by mimicking the flash patterns of P. pyralis, but we did not find an effect of light pollution on Photuris–Photinus predator–prey interactions. Our study suggests, that for some nocturnal insects, light-polluted areas may act as demographic traps, i.e., areas where immigration exceeds emigration and inhibition of courtship dialogues and mating reduces reproduction. Examining multiple factors affecting population growth in concert is needed to understand and mitigate impacts of light pollution on wildlife.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1439-1791 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1978
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